Non-defining relative clauses с предлогами и другими словами

Урок 96
Предлоги + whom/which

Вы можете использовать предлог (preposition) перед whom (для людей) и which (для вещей). Т.е. вы можете сказать: to whom / with whom / about which / without which и др. :

  • Mr Lee, to whom I spoke at the meeting, is very interested in our proposal.
    Мистер Ли, с кем я разговаривал во время встречи, очень заинтересован в нашем предложении.
  • Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost.
    К счастью, у нас была карта, без которой мы бы заблудились.

В неформальном английском мы часто ставим предлог после глагола в relative clause. В таких случаях, мы обычно используем whoне whom) для людей:

  • This is my friend from Canada, who I was telling you about.
    Это мой друг из Канады, о котором я тебе говорил.
  • Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I’d never been to before.
    Вчера мы посетили Городской Музей, в котором я никогда не был.
All of / most of etc. + whom/which

Изучите эти примеры:

Mary has three brothers. All of them are married. (2 предложения)
→ Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (1 предложение)
→ У Марии три брата, все из которых женаты.

They asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. (2 предложения)
→ They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. (1 предложение)
→ Они задавали мне много вопросов, на большинство из которых я не мог ответить.

Таким же образом мы можем сказать:

none of / neither of / any of / either of
some of / many of / much of / (a) few of
both of / half of / each of / one of / two of


+ whom (people)
+ which (things)

  • Martin tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.
    Мартин примерил три куртки, ни одна из которых ему не подошла.
  • Two men, neither of whom I had seen before, came into the office.
    Двое мужчин, ни одного из которых я раньше не видел, пришли в офис.
  • They’ve got three cars, two of which they rarely use.
    У них три машины, двумя из которых они пользуются редко.
  • Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.
    У Сью много друзей, с многими из которых она училась в школе.

Вы также можете сказать the cause of which / the name of which и т.п. :

  • The building was destroyed in a fire, the cause of which was never established.
    Здание было разрушено во время пожара, причина которого так и не была установлена.
  • We stayed at a beautiful hotel, the name of which I can’t remember now.
    Мы остановились в красивой гостинице, название которой я сейчас не могу вспомнить.
Which (не what)

Изучите следующий пример:

Джо получил работу, что всех удивило.

В этом примере, which = ‘the fact that he got the job - факт того, что он получил работу’. Вы должны использовать whichне what) в подобного рода предложениях:

  • Sarah couldn’t meet us, which was a pity. (not what was a pity)
    Жаль, что Сара не могла встретить нас. (досл.: Сара не могла встретить нас, что было печальным фактом)
  • The weather was good, which we hadn’t expected. (not what we hadn’t expected)
    Погода была хорошей, чего мы не ожидали.

О what см. уроки 92C и 93D.


1. Напишите relative clauses в более формальном стиле, используя предлог + whom/which.

  1. Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I’d never been to before.
    Yesterday we visited the City Museum, .
  2. My brother showed us his new car, which he’s very proud of.
    My brother showed us his new car, .
  3. This is a photograph of our friends Chris and Sam, who we went on holiday with.
    This is a photograph of our friends Chris and Sam, .
  4. The wedding, which only members of the family were invited to, took place on Friday.
    The wedding, , took place on Friday.


2. Используйте информацию из первого предложения, чтобы закончить второе. Используйте all of / most of и др. или the ... of + whom/which.

  1. All of Mary’s brothers are married.
    Mary has three brothers, .
  2. Most of the information we were given was useless.
    We were given a lot of information, .
  3. Jane has received neither of the letters I sent her.
    I sent Jane two letters, .
  4. None of the ten people who applied for the job was suitable.
    Ten people applied for the job, .
  5. Kate hardly ever uses one of her computers.
    Kate has got two computers, .
  6. Key
  7. Mike gave half of the £50.000 he won to his parents.
    Mike won £50,000, .
  8. Both of Julia’s sisters are teachers.
    Julia has two sisters, .
  9. I went to a party - I knew only a few of the people there.
    There were a lot of people at the party, .
  10. The sides of the road we drove along were lined with trees.
    We drove along the road, the .
  11. The aim of the company’s new business plan is to save money.
    The company has a new business plan, .


3. Составьте новые предложения, объединив по одному предложению из рамочек ниже. Используйте which.

1. Laura couldn’t come to the party.
2. Jane doesn’t have a phone.
3. Neil has passed his exams.
4. Our flight was delayed.
5. Kate offered to let me stay at her house.
6. The street I live in is very noisy at night.
7. Our car has broken down.

This was very kind of her.
This means we can’t go away tomorrow.
This makes it difficult to contact her.
This makes it difficult to sleep sometimes.
This was a pity.
This is good news.
This meant we had to wait three hours at the airport.