Present perfect и past simple 1 (I have done и I did)

Урок 13

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it.
Том ищет свой ключ. Он не может его найти.

He has lost his key. Он потерял ключ. (present perfect)

Это означает, что сейчас у него ключа нет.

Десять минут позже:

Now Tom has found his key. He has it now.

Has he lost his key? No, he has found it.
Он потерял ключ? Нет, он нашел его.

Did he lose his key? Yes, he did.
Он терял ключ? Да, терял.

He lost his key - Он (по)терял ключ (past simple)
but now he has found it - но сейчас он его нашел. (present perfect)

The present perfect (something has happened) это настоящее время. Оно всегда говорим нам о ситуации сейчас. ‘Tom has lost his key’ = ключа у него нет сейчас (см. урок 7).

The past simple (something happened) говорит нам только о прошлом. Если кто-то говорит ‘Tom lost his key’, это не скажет нам о том, есть ли сейчас у него ключ или нет. Это лишь говорит нам о том, что он потерял ключ в какой-то момент времени в прошлом.

Не используйте present perfect, если ситуация в настоящем изменилась. Сравните:

  • They’ve gone away. They’ll be back on Friday. (сейчас их всё ещё нет)
    They went away, but I think they’re back at home now. (not They’ve gone)
  • It has stopped raining now, so we don’t need the umbrella. (сейчас не идет дождь)
    It stopped raining for a while, but now it’s raining again. (not It has stopped)

Вы можете использовать present perfect для новых или недавних событий:

  • ‘I’ve repaired the TV. It’s working OK now.’ ‘Oh, that’s good.’
  • Have you heard the news? Sally has won the lottery!

Если событие не новое (или недавнее), используйте the past simple (not the present perfect):

  • Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music. (not has been ... has written)
  • My mother grew up in Scotland. (not has grown)


  • Did you know that somebody has invented a new type of washing machine?
  • Who invented the telephone? (not has invented)

Мы используем present perfect, чтобы сообщить новую информацию (см. урок 7). Но если мы продолжаем говорить об этом, мы обычно используем past simple:

  • A: Ow! I’ve burnt myself.
    B: How did you do that? (not have you done)
    A: I picked up a hot dish. (not have picked)
  • A: Look! Somebody has spilt something on the sofa.
    B: Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. (not hasn’t been ... haven’t done)


1. Завершите предложения на картинках, используя глаголы в скобках. Используйте present perfect, где возможно. В остальных случаях используйте past simple.


2. Поставьте глагол в правильную форму: present perfect или past simple.

  1. It raining for a while, but now it’s raining again. (stop)
  2. The town is very different now. It a lot. (change)
  3. I did German at school, but I most of it now. (forget)
  4. The police three people, but later they let them go. (arrest)
  5. What do you think of my English? Do you think it ? (improve)
  6. A: Are you still reading the paper?
    B: No, I with it. You can have it. (finish)
  7. I for a job as a tourist guide, but I wasn’t successful. (apply)
  8. Key
  9. Where’s my bike? It outside the house, but it’s not there now. (be)
  10. Look! There’s an ambulance over there. There an accident. (be)
  11. A: Have you heard about Ben? He his arm. (break)
    B: Really? How that ? (happen)
    A: He off a ladder. (fall)


3. Находятся ли выделенные части этих предложений в правильной грамматической форме? Исправьте их, если необходимо.

1. Do you know about Sue? She’s given up her job.
2. My mother has grown up in Scotland.
3. How many plays has Shakespeare written?
4. Ow! I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding.
5. Drugs have become a big problem everywhere.
6. The Chinese have invented paper.
7. Where have you been born?
8. Mary isn’t at home. She’s gone shopping.
9. Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed the theory of relativity.