Пассивный (страдательный) залог 1 (present и past simple)

Урок 42

Изучите этот пример:

This house was built in 1935.
Этот дом был построен в 1935 году.

Was built is passive (пассивный/страдательный залог).

Сравните активный (действительный) и пассивный залоги:

Когда мы используем активный глагол, мы говорим о том, что делает подлежащее (subject):

  • My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935. (Он построил...)
  • It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people. (Она предоставляет работу...)

Когда мы используем пассивный глагол, мы говорим о том, что происходит с подлежащим:

  • This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.
  • Two hundred people are employed by the company.
    Двести человек трудоустроены в этой компании. (досл.: есть нанятые)

Когда мы используем пассивный залог, мы часто не знаем кто или что совершает действие, либо нам не важно это знать:

  • A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (кто-то украл их, но мы не знаем кто)
  • Is this room cleaned every day? (кто-нибудь прибирает комнату? - не важно кто)

Если нам нужно сказать кто или что совершает действие, мы добавляем by ... :

  • This house was built by my grandfather. (моим дедушкой)
  • Two hundred people are employed by the company. (компанией)

Пассивный залог состоит из глагола be (is/was и т.д.) + past participle (причастие прошедшего времени) (done/cleaned/seen и т.д.):

(be) done (be) cleaned (be) damaged (be) built (be) seen etc.

см. Список неправильных глаголов английского языка.

Изучите активные и пассивные формы для present simple и past simple:

Present simple


clean(s) / see(s) etc.


am/is/are + cleaned/seen etc.

  • Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
    Много несчастных случаев происходит из-за невнимательности на дорогах.
  • I’m not often invited to parties.
    Меня не часто приглашают на вечеринки.
  • How is this word pronounced?
    Как произносится это слово?

Past simple


cleaned/saw etc.


was/were + cleaned/seen etc.

  • We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
    Нас разбудил громкий шум посреди ночи.
  • ‘Did you go to the party?’ ‘No, I wasn’t invited.’
    Ты ходил на вечеринку? — Нет, меня не пригласили.
  • How much money was stolen in the robbery?
    Сколько денег было украдено во время ограбления?


1. Закончите предложения, используя один из этих глаголов в правильной форме настоящего или прошедшего времени:

cause damage hold invite make
overtake show surround translate write
  1. Many accidents by dangerous driving.
  2. Cheese from milk.
  3. The roof of the building in a storm a few days ago.
  4. You to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
  5. A cinema is a place where films .
  6. In the United States, elections for president every four years.
  7. Originally the book in Spanish, and a few years ago it into English.
  8. Although we were driving quite fast, we by a lot of other cars.
  9. You can’t see the house from the road. It by trees.


2. Напишите вопросы, используя пассив настоящего или прошедшего времени.

  1. Ask about glass. (how/make?)
  2. Ask about television. (when / invent?)
  3. Ask about mountains. (how / form?)
  4. Ask about Pluto (the planet). (when / discover?)
  5. Ask about silver. (what / use for?)


3. Поставьте глагол в правильную форму: present simple или past simple, active или passive.

  1. It’s a big factory. Five hundred people (employ) there.
  2. (somebody / clean) this room yesterday?
  3. Water (cover) most of the earth’s surface.
  4. How much of the earth’s surface (cover) by water?
  5. The park gates (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
  6. The letter (post) a week ago and it (arrive) yesterday.
  7. The boat hit a rock and (sink) quickly. Fortunately everybody (rescue).
  8. Richard’s parents (die) when he was very young. He and his sister (bring up) by their grandparents.
  9. I was born in London, but I (grow up) in Canada.
  10. Key
  11. While I was on holiday, my camera (steal) from my hotel room.
  12. While I was on holiday, my camera (disappear) from my hotel room.
  13. Why (Sue / resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
  14. Why (Bill / sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
  15. The company is not independent. It (own) by a much larger company.
  16. I saw an accident last night. Somebody (call) an ambulance but nobody (injure), so the ambulance (not / need).
  17. Where (these photographs / take)? In London? (you / take) them, or somebody else?
  18. Sometimes it’s quite noisy living here, but it’s not a problem for me - I (not / bother) by it.


4. Перепишите эти предложения. Вместо somebody, they, people и др. используйте пассивный залог.

  1. Somebody cleans the room every day.
  2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.
  3. People don’t use this road much.
  4. Somebody accused me of stealing money.
  5. How do people learn languages?
  6. Somebody warned us not to go out alone.