Определенный артикль the 2: school / the school и др.

Урок 74
A

Сравните school и the school:

Alison is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She’s at school now. School begins at 9 and finishes at 3.

Today Alison’s mother wants to speak to her daughter’s teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She’s at the school now.

Мы говорим, что ребенок goes to school (ходит в школу) или is at school (в школе, как ученик). Мы не обязательно думаем о какой-то конкретной школе. Мы думаем о школе как об общей идее (учиться).

Мама Элисон – не ученица. Она не ‘at school’, она не ‘go to school’. Если она хочет увидеть учительницу Элисон, она goes to the school (= школу Элисон, конкретное здание).

B

Мы используем prison, hospital, university, college и church таким же образом. Мы не используем the, когда думаем об общей идее этих мест и для чего они предназначены. Сравните:

◇ Ken’s brother is in prison for robbery. (Он заключенный. Мы не думаем о конкретной тюрьме.)
◇ Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (Он пошел как посетитель, а не как заключенный.)
◇ Joe had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He’s still in hospital now. (как пациент)
◇ Jane has gone to the hospital to visit Joe. She’s at the hospital now. (как посетитель)
◇ When I leave school, I want to go to university/college.
◇ Excuse me, where is the university, please? (= здания университета)
◇ Sally’s father goes to church every Sunday. (за церковной службой)
◇ Some workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (не за церковной службой)

С большинством других мест, вам необходимо использовать определенный артикль the. Например, the cinema, the bank (см. уроки 72C и 73D).

Bed work home

Мы говорим go to bed / be in bed и т.п. (не the bed):

  • It’s time to go to bed now.
    Пора идти спать/в постель.
  • Do you ever have breakfast in bed?
    Ты когда-нибудь завтракал в постели?
  • но
  • I sat down on the bed.
    Я сел на кровать. (конкретный предмет обстановки)

go to work / be at work / start work / finish work и т.п. (not the work):

  • Chris didn’t go to work yesterday.
    Крис вчера не ходил на работу.
  • What time do you usually finish work?
    В какое время ты обычно заканчиваешь работу?

go home / come home / arrive home / get home / be at home и т.п. :

  • It’s late. Let’s go home.
    Уже поздно. Пошли домой.
  • Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon?
    Ты будешь дома завтра днем?
D

Мы говорим go to sea / be at sea (без the), когда значением является ‘отправиться/быть в морском путешествии’:

  • Keith works on ships. He is at sea most of the time.
    Кит (муж. имя) работает на кораблях. Большинство своего времени он проводит в море.
  • но
  • I’d like to live near the sea.
    Я бы хотел жить возле моря.
  • It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.
    Плавать в море может быть опасным.

Упражнения

1. Закончите каждое предложение, используя предлог (to/at/in etc.) + одно из следующих слов:

bed home hospital hospital prison school university work

  1. Two people were injured in the accident and were taken .
  2. In Britain, children from the age of five have to go .
  3. Mark didn’t go out last night. He stayed .
  4. There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going .
  5. Cathy’s mother has just had an operation. She is still .
  6. When Julia leaves school, she wants to study economics .
  7. Bill never gets up before 9 o’clock. It’s 8.30 now, so he is still .
  8. If you commit a serious crime, you could be sent .

Key

2. Закончите предложения с данным словом (school и т.д.). Используйте определенный артикль the, если необходимо.

  1. (school)
    a. Every term parents are invited to to meet the teachers.
    b. Why aren’t your children at today? Are they ill?
    c. When he was younger, Ted hated .
    d. What time does usually start in the mornings in your country?
    e. A: How do your children get home from ? By bus? B: No, they walk. isn’t very far.
    f. What son of job does Jenny want to do when she leaves ?
    g. There were some people waiting outside to meet their children.
  2. Key
  3. (university)
    a. In your country do many people go to ?
    b. If you want to get a degree, you normally have to study at .
    c. This is only a small town, but is one of the biggest in the country.
  4. Key
  5. (hospital)
    a. My brother has always been very healthy. He’s never been in .
    b. When Ann was ill, I went to to visit her. When I was there, I met Lisa who is a nurse at .
    c. Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in for a few days.
  6. Key
  7. (church)
    a. John’s mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to every Sunday.
    b. John himself doesn’t go to .
    c. John went to to take some photographs of the building.
  8. Key
  9. (prison)
    a. In some places people are in because of their political beliefs.
    b. A few days ago the fire brigade were called to to put out a fire.
    c. The judge decided to fine the man £500 instead of sending him to .
  10. Key
  11. (home/work/bed)
    a. I like to read in before I go to sleep.
    b. It’s nice to travel around, but there’s no place like !
    c. Shall we meet after tomorrow evening?
    d. If I’m feeling tired, I go to early.
    e. What time do you usually start in the morning?
    f. The economic situation was very bad. Many people were out of .
  12. Key
  13. (sea)
    a. There’s a nice view from the window. You can see .
    b. It was a long voyage. We were at for four weeks.
    c. I love swimming in .

Key