-ing и -ed clauses (Participle clauses - причастные обороты в английском)

Урок 97
A

A clause – часть предложения (если это новая для вас информация, начните с урока 92). Некоторые clauses начинаются с -ing или -ed (participle clauses - причастные обороты). В примерах ниже они выделены жирным:

Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (-ing clause)
Ты знаешь женщину, говорящую с Томом?

The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (-ed clause)
Мальчика, пострадавшего в аварии, увезли в больницу.

B

Мы используем -ing clauses, когда говорим о том, что кто-то (или что-то) делает (или делал) в определенный момент времени (как со временем continuous):

  • Do you know the woman talking to Sam? (the woman is talking to Sam)
  • Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)
    Полиция, расследующая преступление, ищет троих мужчин.
  • Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)
    Кто были те люди, ожидающие снаружи?
  • I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
    Я был разбужен звоном колокола. (досл.: колоколом звонящим)

Вы также можете использовать -ing clause, когда говорите о том, что происходит постоянно, а не только в определенный момент времени. Например:

  • The road connecting the two villages is very narrow. (the road connects the two villages)
    Дорога, соединяющая две деревни, очень узкая.
  • I have a large room overlooking the garden. (the room overlooks the garden)
    У меня большая комната с видом на сад. (досл.: выходящая в сад)
  • Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T? (the name begins with T)
    Можешь вспомнить название цветка, начинающегося на букву Т?
C

-ed clauses имеют пассивное (passive) значение:

  • The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (he was injured in the accident)
  • George showed me some pictures painted by his father. (they had been painted by his father)
    Джордж показал мне несколько картин, нарисованных его отцом.

Injured и paintedpast participles (причастия прошедшего времени). Заметьте, что многие past participles – неправильные и не заканчиваются на -ed (stolen/made/written и т.п.):

  • The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.
    Полиция так и не нашла деньги, украденные во время ограбления.
  • Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
    Большинство товаров, изготовленных на этом заводе, экспортируются.

Вы можете использовать left таким же способом, в значении ‘not used, still there – осталось (не использовано, всё еще там)’:

  • We’ve eaten nearly all the chocolates. There are only a few left.
    Мы съели почти весь шоколад. Осталось совсем немного. (досл.: есть только немного оставшихся.)
D

Мы часто используем -ing и -ed clauses после оборотов there is / there was и т.п. :

  • There were some children swimming in the river.
    Несколько детей купались в речке.
  • Is there anybody waiting?
    Кто-нибудь ждёт?
  • There was a big red car parked outside the house.
    Большая красная машина была припаркована около дома.

Упражнения

1. Составьте одно предложение из двух, используя -ing clause.

  1. A bell was ringing. I was woken up by it.
    I was woken up by .
  2. A man was sitting next to me on the plane. I didn’t talk much to him.
    I didn’t talk much to the .
  3. A taxi was taking us to the airport. It broke down.
    The broke down.
  4. There’s a path at the end of this street. The path leads to the river.
    At the end of the street there’s a .
  5. A factory has just opened in the town. It employs 500 people.
    A has just opened in the town.
  6. The company sent me a brochure. It contained the information I needed.
    The company sent me .

Key

2. Составьте одно предложение из двух, используя -ed clause.

  1. A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital.
    The boy was taken to hospital.
  2. A gate was damaged in the storm. It has now been repaired.
    The gate has now been repaired.
  3. A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.
    Most of the were not very practical.
  4. Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven’t been found yet.
    The haven’t been found yet.
  5. A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?
    What was the name of ?

Key

3. Закончите предложения, используя следующие глаголы в правильной форме:

blow call invite live offer read ring sit study work

  1. I was woken up by a bell .
  2. Some of the people to the party can’t come.
  3. Life must be very unpleasant for people near busy airports.
  4. A few days after the interview, I received a letter me the job.
  5. Somebody Jack phoned while you were out.
  6. There was a tree down in the storm last night.
  7. The waiting room was empty except for a young man by the window a magazine.
  8. Ian has a brother in a bank in London and a sister economics at university in Manchester.

Key

4. Составьте предложения, используя слова в скобках и обороты There is / There was и т.п.

  1. That house is empty. (nobody / live / in it)
  2. The accident wasn’t serious. (nobody / injure)
  3. I can hear footsteps. (somebody / come)
  4. The train was full. (a lot of people / travel)
  5. We were the only guests at the hotel. (nobody else / stay there)
  6. The piece of paper was blank. (nothing / write / on it)
  7. The college offers English courses in the evening. (a course / begin / next Monday)

Key


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