Употребление much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty

Урок 87
A

Мы используем much (много) и little (мало) с неисчисляемыми существительными:

much time
much luck
little energy
little money

Мы используем many (много) и few (мало) с существительными во множественном числе:

many friends
many people
few cars
few countries
B

Мы используем a lot of / lots of / plenty of как с неисчисляемыми существительными, так и с существительными во множественном числе (lot и lots – тоже ‘много’):

a lot of luck
a lot of friends

lots of time
lots of people

plenty of money
plenty of ideas

Plenty = более чем достаточно:

  • There’s no need to hurry. We’ve got plenty of time – У нас полно/куча/уйма/масса времени.
C

Much – нехарактерен для утвердительных предложений (особенно в разговорном английском). Сравните:

  • We didn’t spend much money.

но

We spent a lot of money. (not We spent much money)

  • Do you see David much?

но

I see David a lot. (not I see David much)

Мы используем many (много) и a lot of (много) во всех типах предложений:

  • Many people drive too fast. илиA lot of people drive too fast.
  • Do you know many people? или Do you know a lot of people?
  • There aren’t many tourists here. или There aren’t a lot of tourists here.

Заметьте, что мы говорим many years / many weeks / many days (не a lot of...):

  • We’ve lived here for many years. (not a lot of years)
D

Little и few (без неопределенного артикля a) несут в себе негативный смысл того, что чего-то (сильно) не хватает (= not much / not many):

  • Gary is very busy with his job. He has little time for other things. (= not much time, less time than he would like = не много времени, меньше, чем бы он хотел)
  • Vicky doesn’t like living in London. She has few friends there. (= not many, not as many as she would like = не много, не так много, как бы ей хотелось)

Вы можете сказать very little и very few:

  • Gary has very little time for other things.
    У Гари очень мало времени на занятие другими делами.
  • Vicky has very few friends in London.
    У Вики очень мало друзей в Лондоне.
E

A little и a few имеют более позитивное значение (‘немного’ все-таки есть).

A little = some, a small amount = немного, небольшая величина:

  • Let’s go and have a coffee. We have a little time before the train leaves.
    (a little time = немного времени, но его достаточно, чтобы выпить чашечку кофе)
  • ‘Do you speak English?’ ‘A little.’ (поэтому мы можем немного поговорить)

A few = some, a small number = немного, небольшое количество:

  • I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.
    (a few friends = немного друзей, но их достаточно, чтобы хорошо провести время)
  • ‘When was the last time you saw Clare?’ ‘A few days ago.’ (= some days ago = несколько дней назад)

Сравните:

  • He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him.
    He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him.
  • She’s lucky. She has few problems. (= not many problems)
    Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems)

Вы можете сказать only a little и only a few:

  • Hurry! We only have a little time. (not only little time)
    Поторопись! У нас совсем немного времени.
  • The village was very small. There were only a few houses. (not only few houses)
    Деревня была очень небольшой. Всего лишь несколько домов.

Упражнения

1. В некоторых из этих предложений much использовать нельзя или оно будет неестественно. Измените much на many или a lot (of), если необходимо. Напишите ‘OK’, если предложение правильное.

1.
We didn’t spend much money.
2.
Sue drinks much tea.
3.
Joe always puts much salt on his food.
4.
We’ll have to hurry. We haven’t got much time.
5.
It cost much to repair the car.
6.
Did it cost much to repair the car?
7.
I don’t know much people in this town.
8.
I use the phone much at work.
9.
There wasn’t much traffic this morning.
10.
You need much money to travel round the world.

Key

2. Закончите предложения, используя plenty (of) + следующее:

hotels money room things to see time to learn

  1. There’s no need to hurry. There’s .
  2. He’s got no financial problems. He’s got .
  3. Come and sit with us. There’s .
  4. She knows a lot, but she still has .
  5. It’s an interesting town to visit. There .
  6. I’m sure we’ll find somewhere to stay. .

Key

3. Выберите much/many/few/little.

  1. She isn’t very popular. She has friends.
  2. Ann is very busy these days. She has free time.
  3. Did you take photographs when you were on holiday?
  4. I’m not very busy today. I haven’t got to do.
  5. This is a very modern city. There are old buildings.
  6. The weather has been very dry recently. We’ve had rain.
  7. ‘Do you know Rome?’ ‘No, I haven’t been there for years.’

Key

4. Добавьте неопределенный артикль a, если необходимо.

  1. She’s lucky. She has few problems. ☑
  2. Things are not going so well for her. She has few problems. ☒
  3. Can you lend me few dollars?
  4. There was little traffic, so the journey didn’t take very long.
  5. I can’t give you a decision yet. I need little time to think.
  6. It was a surprise that he won the match. Few people expected him to win.
  7. I don’t know much Spanish - only few words.
  8. I wonder how Sam is. I haven’t seen him for few months.

Key

5. Выберите little / a little / few / a few.

  1. Gary is very busy with his job. He has time for other things.
  2. Listen carefully. I’m going to give you advice.
  3. Do you mind if I ask you questions?
  4. It’s not a very interesting place to visit, so tourists come here.
  5. I don’t think Jill would be a good teacher. She’s got patience.
  6. ‘Would you like milk in your coffee?’ ‘Yes, .’
  7. This is a very boring place to live. There’s to do.
  8. ‘Have you ever been to Paris?’ ‘Yes, I’ve been there times.’

Key


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