Relative clauses – Придаточные предложения с и без who/that/which

Урок 93
A

Посмотрите на примеры из урока 92:

  • The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman that lives ...)

The woman lives next door.

who (= the woman) – подлежащее (subject).

  • Where is the cheese that was in the fridge? (or the cheese which was ...)

The cheese was in the fridge.

that (= the cheese) – подлежащее.

Вы должны использовать who/that/which, когда одно из них выступает подлежащим в придаточном предложении. Т.е. вы не можете сказать ‘The woman lives next door is a doctor’ или ‘Where is the cheese was in the fridge?’.

B

Иногда who/that/whichдополнение (object) глагола. Например:

  • The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday.
    Женщина, которую я хотел увидеть, уехала в отпуск.

I wanted to see the woman.

who (= the woman) – дополнение.
Iподлежащее.

  • Have you found the keys that you lost?
    Ты нашел ключи, которые ты потерял?

You lost the keys.

that (= the keys) – дополнение.
youподлежащее.

Когда who/that/which – дополнение, его можно опустить. Т.е. вы можете сказать:

  • The woman I wanted to see was away. или The woman who I wanted to see ...
  • Have you found the keys you lost? или ... the keys that you lost?
  • The dress Liz bought doesn’t fit her very well. или The dress that Liz bought ...
  • Is there anything I can do? или ... anything that I can do?
    Я могу чем-нибудь помочь? (досл.: есть что-нибудь, что я могу сделать?)
C

Обратите внимание на расположение предлогов (in/to/for и др.) в придаточных предложениях:

Tom is talking to a woman – do you know her?
→ Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking to?

I slept in a bed last night – it wasn’t very comfortable.
→ The bed (that/which) I slept in last night wasn’t very comfortable.

  • Are these the books you were looking for? или ... the books that/which you were ...
  • The woman he fell in love with left him after a month. или The woman who/that he ...
  • The man I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time. или The man who/that I was sitting next to ...
D

Вы не можете использовать what в подобных предложениях (см. также урок 92C):

  • Everything (that) they said was true. (not Everything what they said)
  • I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not all the money what I had)

What = ‘the thing(s) that’:

  • Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)
    Ты слышал (то,) что они сказали?

Упражнения

1. В некоторых из этих предложений необходимо who или that. Исправьте предложения там, где необходимо.

1.
The woman lives next door is a doctor.
2.
Have you found the keys you lost?
3.
The people we met last night were very nice.
4.
The people work in the office are very nice.
5.
The people I work with are very nice.
6.
What have you done with the money I gave you?
7.
What happened to the money was on the table?
8.
What’s the worst film you’ve ever seen?
9.
What’s the best thing it has ever happened to you?

Key

2. Что бы вы сказали в этих ситуациях? Закончите каждое предложение его придаточной частью (relative clause).

  1. Your friend lost some keys. You want to know if he has found them. You say:
    Have you found ?
  2. A friend is wearing a dress. You like it. You tell her:
    I like the dress .
  3. A friend is going to see a film. You want to know the name of the film. You say:
    What’s the name of the film ?
  4. You wanted to visit a museum. It was shut when you got there. You tell a friend:
    The museum was shut when we got there.
  5. You invited some people to your party. Some of them couldn’t come. You tell someone:
    Some of the people couldn’t come.
  6. Your friend had to do some work. You want to know if she has finished. You say:
    Have you finished the work ?
  7. You hired a car. It broke down after a few miles. You tell a friend:
    The car broke down after a few miles.
  8. You stayed at a hotel. Tom had recommended it to you. You tell a friend:
    We stayed at a hotel .

Key

3. Закончите каждое предложение, используя придаточное предложение с предлогом. Выберите из рамочки.

we went to a party last night
we were invited to a wedding
you told me about a hotel
you were looking for some books
you can rely on Gary
I applied for a job
I saw you with a man
I work with some people
  1. Are these the books ?
  2. Unfortunately we couldn’t go to the wedding .
  3. I enjoy my job. I like the people .
  4. What’s the name of that hotel ?
  5. The party wasn’t very enjoyable.
  6. I didn’t get the job .
  7. Gary is a good person to know. He’s somebody .
  8. Who was that man in the restaurant?

Key

4. Выберите that или what там, где необходимо. Если предложение уже закончено, оставьте поле пустым.

  1. I gave her all the money I had. (all the money that I had – также правильно)
  2. Did you hear they said?
  3. They give their children everything they want.
  4. Tell me you want and I’ll try to get it for you.
  5. Why do you blame me for everything goes wrong?
  6. I won’t be able to do much, but I’ll do I can.
  7. I won’t be able to do much, but I’ll do the best I can.
  8. I don’t agree with you’ve just said.
  9. I don’t trust him. I don’t believe anything he says.

Key


Только зарегистрированные пользователи могут добавлять комментарии.