Разница между there (is) и it (is)

Урок 84
There и it

There’s a new restaurant in King Street.
— Yes, I know. I went there last night. It’s very good.

— На Кинг Стрит – новый ресторан.
— Да, я знаю. Я ходил туда вчера вечером. Он очень хороший.

Мы используем there ..., когда говорим о чем-то впервые, что что-то появилось/начало существовать (в переводе на русский there часто теряется):

  • There’s a new restaurant in King Street. (not A new restaurant is in King Street)
  • I’m sorry I’m late. There was a lot of traffic. (not It was a lot of traffic)
    Извини, что я опоздал. Было много пробок на дороге.
  • Things are more expensive now. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.
    Вещи сейчас стоят дороже. Стоимость жизни значительно повысилась.

It = конкретная вещь, место, факт, ситуация и т.п. (но см. также раздел C):

  • We went to the new restaurant. It’s very good. (It = the restaurant)
  • I wasn’t expecting them to come. It was a complete surprise. (It = that they came)
    Я не ожидала, что они придут. Это было полной неожиданностью. (Это = то, что они пришли)

Сравните there и it:

  • I don’t like this town. There’s nothing to do here. It’s a boring place.
    Мне не нравится этот город. Здесь нечего делать. Это скучное место.

There также означает ‘to/at/in that place’ (туда, там):

  • The new restaurant is very good. I went there (= to the restaurant) last night.
  • When we got to the party, there were already a lot of people there (= at the party).
B

Вы можете сказать there will be / there must be / there might be / there used to be и т.п. :

  • Will there be many people at the party?
    На вечеринке будет много людей?
  • Is there a flight to Paris this evening?’ ‘There might be. I’ll phone the airport.’
    ‘Этим вечером есть рейс в Париж?’ ‘Возможно. Я позвоню в аэропорт.’
  • If people drove more carefully, there wouldn’t be so many accidents.
    Если бы люди водили машину более осторожно, не было бы так много автокатастроф.

Также there must have been, there should have been и др. :

  • There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home.
    Свет был включен. Должно быть, кто-то был дома.

Сравните there и it:

  • They live on a busy road. There must be a lot of noise from the traffic.
    They live on a busy main road. It must be very noisy.
  • There used to be a cinema in King Street, but it closed a few years ago.
    That building is now a supermarket. It used to be a cinema.

Вы также можете сказать there is sure/certain/likely/bound to be ... :

  • There is bound (= sure) to be a flight to Paris this evening.
    Этим вечером наверняка есть рейс в Париж.
C

Мы также используем it в предложениях такого типа (при переводе получаются безличные предложения):

  • It’s dangerous to walk in the road.
    Опасно ходить по дороге.

Мы обычно не говорим ‘To walk in the road is dangerous’. Обычно мы начинаем с It ... . Еще примеры:

  • It didn’t take us long to get here.
    Мы быстро добрались сюда.
  • It’s a pity (that) Sandra can’t come to the party.
    Жалко, что Сандра не может прийти на вечеринку.
  • Let’s go. It’s not worth waiting any longer.
    Пошли. Не стоит ждать дольше.

Мы также используем it, говоря о расстоянии, времени и погоде:

  • How far is it from here to the airport.
    Как далеко отсюда до аэропорта?
  • What day is it today?
    Какой сегодня день?
  • It’s a long time since we saw you last.
    Прошло много времени с тех пор, как мы видели тебя в последний раз.
  • It was windy yesterday. (but There was a cold wind.)
    Вчера было ветрено. (но Дул холодный ветер.)

Упражнения

1. Вставьте there is/was или it is/was. Некоторые предложения вопросительные (is there ... ? / is it ... ? и т.п.), а некоторые отрицательные (isn’t/wasn’t).

  1. The journey took a long time. a lot of traffic.
  2. What’s the new restaurant like? good?
  3. a bookshop near here?’ ‘Yes, one in Hill Street.’
  4. When we got to the cinema, a queue outside. a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.
  5. I couldn’t see anything. completely dark.
  6. trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.
  7. How far from Milan to Rome?
  8. Keith’s birthday yesterday. We had a party.
  9. Key
  10. three years since I last went to the theatre.
  11. I wanted to visit the museum, but enough time.
  12. time to leave?’ ‘Yes, nearly midnight.’
  13. A few days ago a storm. a lot of damage.
  14. a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.
  15. anything on television, so I turned it off.
  16. an accident in King Street, but very serious.

Key

2. Прочитайте первое предложение, затем напишите предложение, начиная с There ... .

  1. The roads were busy today.
  2. This soup is very salty.
    There
    in the soup.
  3. The box was empty.
    in the box.
  4. The film was very violent.
  5. The shops were very crowded.
  6. I like this town - it’s lively.

Key

3. Закончите предложения. Используйте there will be, there would be и др. Выберите из:

will may would wouldn’t should used to (be) going to

  1. If people drove more carefully, fewer accidents.
  2. ‘Do we have any eggs?’ ‘I’m not sure. some in the fridge.’
  3. I think everything will be OK. I don’t think any problems.
  4. Look at the sky. a storm.
  5. ‘Is there a school in the village?’ ‘Not now. one, bur it closed.’
  6. People drive too fast on this road. I think a speed limit.
  7. If people weren’t aggressive, any wars.

Key

4. Эти предложения правильны или нет? Измените it на there, если необходимо.

  1. They live on a busy road. It must be a lot of noise.
  2. Last winter it was very cold and it was a lot of snow.
  3. It used to be a church here, but it was knocked down.
  4. Why was she so unfriendly? It must have been a reason.
  5. It’s a long way from my house to the nearest shop.
  6. A: Where can we park the car?
    B: Don’t worry. It’s sure to be a car park somewhere.
  7. Key
  8. After the lecture it will be an opportunity to ask questions.
  9. I like the place where I live, but it would be nicer to live by the sea.
  10. I was told that it would be somebody to meet me at the station, but it wasn’t anybody.
  11. The situation is still the same. It has been no change.
  12. I don’t know who’ll win, but it’s sure to be a good game.

Key


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