Условные предложения 3 типа: If I had known ... I wish I had known ...

Урок 40
A

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

Месяц назад Гари лежал в больнице несколько дней. Рейчел не знала об этом, поэтому она не навещала его. Они встретились несколько дней назад. Рейчел сказала:

If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to see you.

Часть предложения If I had known you were in hospital ... говорит нам о том, что она не знала, что он в больнице.

Это условное предложение 3 типа. Мы используем if + had (’d) ..., когда говорим о прошлом (if I had known/been/done и т.д.):

  • I didn’t see you when you passed me in the street. If I’d seen you, of course I would have said hello. (но я не видел тебя)
  • I decided to stay at home last night. I would have gone out if I hadn’t been so tired. (но я устал)
  • If he had been looking where he was going, he wouldn’t have walked into the wall. (но он не смотрел)
  • The view was wonderful. If I’d had a camera with me, I would have taken some photographs. (но у меня не было фотоаппарата)

Сравните условные предложения 2 типа и 3 типа:

  • I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (now)
    Я не голодный. Если бы я был голодным, то я бы съел что-нибудь. (настоящее время)
  • I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (past)
    Я не был голодным. Если бы я был голодным, то я бы съел что-нибудь. (прошедшее время)
B

Мы не используем would в части предложения с if. Мы используем would в другой части предложения:

If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not If I would have seen you)

Заметьте, что ’d может быть как would, так и had:

If I’d seen you,  
I’d have said hello.

(I’d seen = I had seen)
(I’d have said = I would have said)

C

Точно также мы используем had (done) после wish. I wish something had happened = я сожалею о том, что это не произошло.

  • I wish I’d known that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (но я не знал)
  • I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much cake. (я съел слишком много торта)
  • Do you wish you had studied science instead of languages? (вы не изучали науку)

Не используйте would have ... после wish:

  • The weather was cold while we were away. I wish it had been warmer. (not I wish it would have been)
D

Сравните would (do) и would have (done):

  • If I had gone to the party last night, I would be tired now. (I am not tired now - present)
    Если бы я вчера пошел на вечеринку, то сейчас был бы уставшим. (сейчас я не уставший - настоящее время)
  • If I had gone to the party last night, I would have met lots of people. (I didn’t meet lots of people - past)
    Если бы я вчера пошел на вечеринку, то я бы встретил много людей. (я не встретил много людей — прошедшее время).

Первое предложение здесь - это условное предложение смешанного типа. Подробно в этом курсе этот тип предложений не рассматривается, т.к. это более сложная тема.

Также забыли упомянуть об условных предложениях 0 типа, которые выражают прописные истины. Они очень простые:

  • If/when the sun shines, snow melts.
    Если/когда солнце светит, снег тает.

Итого, всего 5 типов условных предложений. А теперь вернемся к теме урока.

Сравните would have, could have и might have:

  – we would have gone out.
– мы бы сходили погулять.
– we could have gone out.
– мы бы смогли погулять.
If the weather hadn’t been so bad, {   (= we would have been able to go out)
Если бы погода не была такой плохой,   – we might have gone out.
– мы бы, возможно, пошли погулять.
   (= perhaps we would have gone out)

Упражнения

1. Поставьте глагол в правильную форму.

  1. I didn’t know you were in hospital. If (I / know), (I / go) to see you.
  2. Sam got to the station just in time to catch the train to the airport. If (he / miss) the train, (he / miss) his flight.
  3. I’m glad that you reminded me about Amanda’s birthday. (I / forget) if (you / not / remind) me.
  4. Unfortunately I forgot my address book when I went on holiday. If (I / have) your address, (I / send) you a postcard.
  5. A: How was your holiday? Did you have a nice time?
    B: It was OK, but (we / enjoy) it more if (the weather / be) nicer.
  6. I took a taxi to the hotel, but the traffic was bad. (it / be) quicker if (I / walk).
  7. I’m not tired. If (I / be) tired, I’d go home now.
  8. I wasn’t tired last night. If (I / be) tired, I would have gone home earlier.

Key

2. Для каждой ситуации напишите предложение, начиная с if.

  1. I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t eat anything.
  2. The accident happened because the road was icy.
  3. I didn’t know that Joe had to get up early, so I didn’t wake him up.
  4. I was able to buy the car only because Jane lent me the money.
  5. Karen wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt.
  6. You didn’t have any breakfast - that’s why you’re hungry now.
  7. I didn’t get a taxi because I didn’t have any money.

Key Key

3. Представьте себя в этих ситуациях. Для каждой ситуации напишите предложение с I wish.

  1. You’ve eaten too much and now you feel sick. You say:
  2. There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your decision was wrong. You say:
  3. When you were younger, you never learned to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this. You say:
  4. You’ve painted the gate red. Now you think that red was the wrong colour. You say:
  5. You are walking in the country. You’d like to take some photographs, but you didn’t bring your camera. You say:
  6. You have some unexpected guests. They didn’t phone first to say they were coming. You are very busy and you are not prepared for them. You say (to yourself):

Key



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