Модальные глаголы must, mustn’t, needn’t

Урок 32
Must mustn’t needn’t

You must do something = необходимо, чтобы ты это сделал:

  • Don’t tell anybody what I said. You must keep it a secret.
  • We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.

You mustn’t do something = необходимо, чтобы ты этого не делал (поэтому, не делай это):

  • You must keep it a secret. You mustn’t tell anybody else. (= никому не говори)
  • We must be very quiet. We mustn’t make any noise.

You needn’t do something = тебе не нужно этого делать (но если хочешь, можешь сделать):

  • You can come with me if you like, but you needn’t come if you don’t want to. (= нет необходимости тебе со мной идти)
  • We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. (= нет необходимости торопиться)
B

Вместо needn’t вы можете использовать don’t/doesn’t need to. Так, вы можете сказать:

  • We needn’t hurry. или We don’t need to hurry.

Помните, что мы говорим don’t need to do, но needn’t do (без to).

Needn’t have (done)

Изучите следующую ситуацию:


Paul had to go out. He thought it was going to rain, so he took the umbrella.
Полу нужно было выйти из дому. Он думал, что пойдет дождь, поэтому он взял зонтик.

позже


But it didn’t rain, so the umbrella was not necessary. So he needn’t have taken it.
Но дождь не пошел, так что зонтик оказался не нужен. Поэтому, ему не нужно было его брать.

He needn’t have taken the umbrella = Он взял зонт, но в этом не было необходимости.

Сравните needn’t (do) и needn’t have (done):

  • Everything will be OK. You needn’t worry. (нет необходимости)
  • Everything was OK. You needn’t have worried. (ты волновалась, но не нужно было)
D

Didn’t need to (do) и needn’t have (done)

I didn’t need to ... = мне это не было нужно ... (и в тот момент я знал об этом):

  • I didn’t need to get up early, so I didn’t.
  • I didn’t need to get up early, but it was a lovely morning, so I did.

I didn’t have to ... также возможно в этих примерах.

I needn’t have done something = Я сделал это, но сейчас я понимаю, что тогда в этом не было необходимости:

  • I got up very early because I had to get ready to go away. But in fact it didn’t take me long to get ready. So, I needn’t have got up so early. I could have stayed in bed longer.

Упражнения

1. Закончите предложения, используя needn’t + следующие глаголы:

ask come explain leave tell walk

  1. We’ve got plenty of time. We yet.
  2. I can manage the shopping alone. You with me.
  3. We all the way home. We can get a taxi.
  4. Just help yourself if you’d like more to eat. You first.
  5. We can keep this a secret between ourselves. We anybody else.
  6. I understand the situation perfectly. You further.

Key

2. Закончите предложения, выбрав must, mustn’t или needn’t.

  1. We haven’t got much time. We hurry.
  2. We’ve got plenty of time. We hurry.
  3. We have enough food at home, so we go shopping today.
  4. Gary gave me a letter to post. I remember to post it.
  5. Gary gave me a letter to post. I forget to post it.
  6. There’s plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You decide now.
  7. You wash those tomatoes. They’ve already been washed.
  8. This is a valuable book. You look after it carefully and you lose it.
  9. A: What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?
    B: Well, it be big - that’s not so important. But it have a nice garden - that’s essential.

Key

3. Прочитайте ситуации и составьте предложения с needn’t have.

  1. Paul went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But it didn’t rain.
  2. Linda bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found that she already had plenty of eggs.
  3. A colleague got angry with you at work. He shouted at you, which you think was unnecessary. Later you say to him:
  4. Brian had money problems, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in a lottery.
  5. We took a video camera with us on holiday, but we didn’t use it in the end.
  6. I thought I was going to miss my train, so I rushed to the station. But the train was late and in the end I had to wait twenty minutes.

Key

4. Напишите по два предложения для каждой ситуации. Используйте needn’t have в первом предложении и could have во втором предложении (как в примере). О could have см. урок 27.

  1. Why did you rush? Why didn’t you take your time?

  2. Why did you walk home? Why didn’t you take a taxi?

  3. Why did you stay at a hotel? Why didn’t you stay with us?

  4. Why did she phone me in the middle of the night? Why didn’t she wait until the morning?

  5. Why did you leave without saying anything? Why didn’t you say goodbye?

Key


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