Разница между Like и As в английском языке

Урок 117
A

Like = ‘similar to’, ‘the same as’ - как (что-либо); подобно (чему-либо); такой, как. В этом смысле использовать as нельзя:

  • What a beautiful house! It’s like a palace. (not as a palace)
    Какой прекрасный дом! Как дворец!
  • ‘What does Sandra do?’ ‘She’s a teacher, like me.’ (not as me)
    ‘Чем занимается Сандра?’ ‘Она учитель, как я.’
  • Be careful! The floor has been polished. It’s like walking on ice. (not as walking)
    Будь осторожен! Пол отполировали. Ходить по нему всё равно что по льду.
  • It’s raining again. I hate weather like this. (not as this)
    Опять дождь. Ненавижу такую погоду. (досл.: погоду, как эта)

В этих предложениях, likeпредлог. Так, за ним следует существительное (like a palace), местоимение (like me / like this) или форма -ing (like walking).

Вы также можете сказать ‘... like (somebody/something) doing something’:

  • ‘What’s that noise?’ ‘It sounds like a baby crying.’
    ‘Что это за шум?’ ‘Звучит, как будто плачет ребенок.’
B

Иногда like = например:

  • Some sports, like motor-racing, can be dangerous.
    Некоторые виды спорта, например, автогонки, могут быть опасными.

Вы также можете использовать such as (= например):

  • Some sports, such as motor-racing, can be dangerous.
C

As = in the same way as, or in the same condition as – таким же образом, как; точно так же, как. Мы используем as перед подлежащим + сказуемое:

  • I didn’t move anything. I left everything as it was.
    Я ничего не двигала. Я оставила всё как было.
  • You should have done it as I showed you.
    Тебе нужно было сделать это так, как я тебе показал.

Like также возможно в неформальном разговорном английском:

  • I left everything like it was.

Сравните as и like:

  • You should have done it as I showed you. (or like I showed you)
  • You should have done it like this. (not as this)
    Тебе нужно было сделать это вот так. (досл.: подобно этому)

Заметьте, что мы говорим as usual / as always:

  • You’re late as usual.
    Ты как обычно опоздала.
  • As always, Nick was the first to complain.
    Как всегда, Ник первым начал жаловаться.
D

Иногда as (+ подлежащее + сказуемое) имеет другие значения. Например, после do:

  • You can do as you like. (= do what you like)
    Можешь делать, что хочешь.
  • They did as they promised. (= They did what they promised.)
    Они сделали, как и обещали. (= Они сделали то, что обещали.)

Мы также говорим as you know / as I said / as she expected / as I thought и др. :

  • As you know, it’s Emma’s birthday next week. (= you know this already)
    Как тебе известно, у Эммы день рождения на следующей неделе.
  • Andy failed his driving test, as he expected. (= he expected this before)
    Энди провалил экзамен по вождению, как он и предполагал.

Like обычно не используется в этих выражениях, за исключением глагола say (like I said – как я сказал):

  • As I said yesterday, I’m sure we can solve the problem. or Like I said yesterday ...
E

As также может быть и предлогом, но значение будет отличаться от like. Сравните:

  • Sue Casey is the manager of a company. As the manager, she has to make many important decisions.
    (As the manager = in her position as the manager.)
    Сью Кейси – менеджер/управляющая компании. Как менеджеру/Будучи управляющей, ей приходится принимать много важных решений.
  • Mary Stone is the assistant manager. Like the manager (Sue Casey), she also has to make important decisions.
    (Like the manager = similar to the manager)
    Мэри Стоун – помощница менеджера. Как и менеджеру, ей также приходится принимать важные решения.

As (предлог) = в качестве - in the position of, in the form of etc. :

  • A few years ago I worked as a taxi driver. (not like a taxi driver)
    Несколько лет назад я работал водителем такси.
  • We haven’t got a car, so we use the garage as a workshop.
    У нас нет машины, поэтому мы используем гараж в качестве мастерской.
  • Many words, for example ‘work’ and ‘rain’, can be used as verbs or nouns.
    Многие слова, например, ‘work’ и ‘rain’, могут быть использованы в качестве глаголов или существительных.
  • London is fine as a place to visit, but I wouldn’t like to live there.
    Лондон прекрасен как место для посещения, но я бы не хотел там жить.
  • The news of the tragedy came as a great shock.
    Новость о трагедии стала большим шоком.

Упражнения

1. В некоторых из этих предложений нужно использовать like (а не as). Исправьте предложения там, где необходимо.

1.
It’s raining again. I hate weather as this.
2.
Andy failed his driving test, as he expected.
3.
Do you think Caroline looks as her mother?
4.
Tim gets on my nerves. I can’t stand people as him.
5.
Why didn’t you do it as I told you to do it?
6.
Brian is a student, as most of his friends.
7.
You never listen. Talking to you is as talking to the wall.

Key

8.
As I said yesterday, I’m thinking of changing my job.
9.
Tom’s idea seems a good one. Let’s do as he suggests.
10.
I’ll phone you tomorrow as usual, OK?
11.
Suddenly there was a terrible noise. It was as a bomb exploding.
12.
She’s a very good swimmer. She swims as a fish.

Key

2. Закончите предложения, используя like или as + следующее:

a beginner
a child
blocks of ice
a church
a palace
winter
a birthday present
a tourist guide
  1. This house is beautiful. It’s .
  2. My feet are really cold. They’re .
  3. I’ve been playing tennis for years, but I still play .
  4. Marion once had a part-time job .
  5. I wonder what that building with the tower is. It looks .
  6. My brother gave me this watch a long time ago.
  7. It’s very cold for the middle of summer. It’s .
  8. He’s 22 years old, but he sometimes behaves .

Key

3. Выберите like или as. Иногда оба слова подходят.

  1. We heard a noise a baby crying.
  2. Your English is very fluent. I wish I could speak you.
  3. Don’t take my advice if you don’t want to. You can do you like.
  4. You waste too much time doing things sitting in cafés all day.
  5. I wish I had a car yours.
  6. You don’t need to change your clothes. You can go out you are.
  7. My neighbour’s house is full of lots of interesting things. It’s a museum.
  8. We saw Kevin last night. He was very cheerful, always.
  9. Sally has been working a waitress for the last two months.
  10. Key
  11. While we were on holiday, we spent most of our time doing energetic things sailing, water skiing and swimming.
  12. You’re different from the other people I know. I don’t know anyone you.
  13. We don’t need all the bedrooms in the house, so we use one of them a study.
  14. The news that Sue and Gary were getting married came a complete surprise to me.
  15. her father, Catherine has a very good voice.
  16. At the moment I’ve got a temporary job in a bookshop. It’s OK a temporary job, but I wouldn’t like to do it permanently.
  17. you can imagine, we were very tired after such a long journey.
  18. This tea is awful. It tastes water.
  19. I think I prefer this room it was, before we decorated it.

Key


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