Разница между my, of mine и my own; on my own и by myself

Урок 83
A friend of mine / a friend of Tom’s etc.

Мы говорим ‘(a friend) of mine/yours/his/hers/ours/theirs’:

  • I’m going to a wedding on Saturday. A friend of mine is getting married. (not a friend of me)
    Я собираюсь на свадьбу в субботу. Мой друг женится.
  • We went on holiday with some friends of ours. (not some friends of us)
    Мы ездили в отпуск с (некоторыми) нашими друзьями.
  • Michael had an argument with a neighbour of his.
    Михаил поссорился со своим соседом.
  • It was a good idea of yours to go to the cinema.
    Сходить в кинотеатр было (вашей) хорошей идеей.

А в чем разница между ‘my friend’ и ‘a friend of mine’? Так и хочется вам спросить... В целом, разницы нет, оба переводятся как ‘мой друг’. Однако, могут быть тонкости: например, ‘my friend’ может выражать более конкретного (близкого) друга, в то время, как ‘a friend of mine’ говорит об одном друге из многих (вспоминаем уроки артиклей), следовательно, это звучит более отдаленно, нейтрально. Таким образом, второй вариант с ‘mine’ позволит вам создавать более сложные предложения как грамматически, так и стилистически.


A ring of mine


My ring


The ring is mine!

Таким же образом мы говорим ‘(a friend) of my sister’s / (a friend) of Tom’s’ и др. :

  • That woman over there is a friend of my sister’s.
    Эта женщина там – подруга моей сестры.
  • It was a good idea of Tom’s to go to the cinema.
My own ... / your own ... etc.

Мы используем my/your/his/her/its/our/their перед own:

my own house your own car her own room
(not an own house, an own car etc.)

My own ... / your own ... и т.д. = мой/твой собственный = something that is only mine/yours, not shared or borrowed:

  • I don’t want to share a room with anybody. I want my own room. Я хочу свою (собственную) комнату.
  • Vicky and George would like to have their own house.
    Вики и Джордж хотели бы иметь (досл.: их) собственный дом.
  • It’s a pity that the flat hasn’t got its own parking space.
  • It’s my own fault that I’ve got no money. I buy too many things I don’t need.
  • Why do you want to borrow my car? Why don’t you use your own? (= your own car)

Вы можете использовать own, чтобы сказать, что вы делаете что-то сами, а не кто-то другой делает это за вас. Например:

  • Brian usually cuts his own hair. (= он стрижёт себя сам; он не ходит к парикмахеру)
  • I’d like to have a garden so that I could grow my own vegetables. (= выращивать овощи сам, вместо того чтобы покупать их в магазинах)
On my own / by myself

On my own и by myself – оба означают ‘сам, в одиночку’. Мы говорим:


on {
my/your
his/her/its
our/their

} own
=

by {
myself / yourself (ед.ч.)
himself / herself / itself
ourselves / yourselves (мн.ч.) / themselves
  • I like living on my own / by myself.
    Мне нравится жить одному/одной (самостоятельно).
  • ‘Did you go on holiday on your own / by yourself?’ ‘No, with a friend.’
  • David was sitting on his own / by himself in a corner of the café.
  • Learner drivers are not allowed to drive on their own / by themselves.

Упражнения

1. Напишите новые предложения с тем же значением. Замените выделенные слова в соответствии с первым разделом урока (a friend of mine и т.п.).

1.
I am meeting one of my friends tonight.
2.
We met one of your relatives.
3.
Henry borrowed one of my books.
4.
Liz invited some of her friends to her flat.
5.
We had dinner with one of our neighbours.
6.
I went on holiday with two of my friends.
7.
Is that man one of your friends?
8.
I met one of Jane’s friends at the parry.

Key

2. Закончите предложения, используя my own / your own и др. + следующее:

bedroom business opinions private beach words

  1. I share a kitchen and bathroom, but I have .
  2. Gary doesn’t think the same as me. He’s got .
  3. Julia is fed up with working for other people. She wants to start .
  4. We stayed at a luxury hotel by the sea. The hotel had .
  5. In the test we had to read a story, and then write it in .

Key

3. Закончите предложения, используя my own / your own и др.

  1. Why do you want to borrow my car?
  2. How can you blame me? It’s not my fault. It’s .
  3. She’s always using my ideas. Why can’t she use ?
  4. Please don’t worry about my problems. You’ve got .
  5. I can’t make his decisions for him. He must make .

Key

4. Закончите предложения, используя my own / your own и др. + следующие глаголы:

bake cut make write

  1. Brian never goes to the hairdresser.
  2. Mary doesn’t often buy clothes.
  3. We don’t often buy bread.
  4. Paul is a singer. He sings songs written by other people, but he also

Key

5. Закончите предложения, используя on my own / by myself и др.

  1. Did you go on holiday on ?
  2. I’m glad I live with other people. I wouldn’t like to live on .
  3. The box was too heavy for me to lift by .
  4. ‘Who was Tom with when you saw him?’ ‘Nobody. He was by .’
  5. Very young children should not go swimming by .
  6. I don’t think she knows many people. When I see her, she is always by .
  7. I don’t like strawberries with cream. I like them on .
  8. Do you like working with other people or do you prefer working by ?
  9. We had no help decorating the flat. We did it completely on .
  10. I went out with Sally because she didn’t want to go out on .

Key


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