Употребление By и until. By the time ...

Урок 120
A

By (+ момент времени) = к, не позже чем в:

  • I sent the letter to them today, so they should receive it by Monday. (= on or before Monday, not later than Monday)
    Сегодня я отправил им письмо, поэтому получить его они должны к понедельнику. (в понедельник или до понедельника, но не позже, чем в понедельник)
  • We’d better hurry. We have to be home by 5 o’clock. (= at or before 5 o’clock, not later than 5 o’clock)
    Нам лучше поспешить. Мы должны быть дома не позднее 5 часов.
  • Where’s Sarah? She should be here by now. (= now or before now - so she should have already arrived)
    Где Сара? Она должна уже быть здесь.


This milk has to be used by 14 August.

B

Мы используем until (или till) = до; (до тех пор) пока (не), чтобы сказать как долго продолжается ситуация:

  • ‘Shall we go now?’ ‘No, let’s wait until (or till) it stops raining.’
    ‘Пойдем сейчас?’ ‘Нет, давай подождем пока не кончится дождь.’
  • I couldn’t get up this morning.

{

I stayed in bed until half past ten. (до 10:30)
I didn’t get up until half past ten.

C

Вы можете сказать ‘by the time something happens’ – к тому времени, когда что-то произойдет. Изучите эти примеры:

  • It’s too late to go to the bank now. By the time we get there, it will be closed. (= the bank will close between now and the time we get there)
    Уже слишком поздно, чтобы идти в банк. К тому времени, как мы туда придем, он будет закрыт. (= банк будет закрыт в промежутке времени между ‘сейчас’ и временем, когда мы туда придем)
  • (from a postcard) Our holiday ends tomorrow. So by the time you receive this postcard, I’ll be back home. (= I will arrive home between tomorrow and the time you receive this postcard)
    (с открытки) Завтра заканчивается наш отпуск. Поэтому к тому времени, как ты получишь эту открытку, я буду дома.
  • Hurry up! By the time we get to the cinema, the film will already have started.
    Поторопись! К тому времени, как мы доберемся до кинотеатра, фильм уже начнется.

Вы можете сказать ‘by the time something happened’ (для прошедшего времени):

  • Karen’s car broke down on the way to the party last night. By the time she arrived, most of the other guests had left. (= it took her a long time to get to the party and most of the guests left during this time)
    Машина Карен сломалась по дороге на вечеринку прошлым вечером. К тому времени, как она прибыла, большая часть других гостей уже ушла.
  • I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening. I was very tired by the time I finished. (= it took me a long time to do the work, and I became more and more tired during this time)
    Вчера вечером мне нужно было сделать много работы. Я очень устал к моменту, когда закончил.
  • We went to the cinema last night. It took us a long time to find somewhere to park the car. By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started.
    Вчера вечером я ходил в кинотеатр. У нас ушло много времени, чтобы найти где припарковаться. К тому времени, как мы пришли в кинотеатр, фильм уже начался.

Также by then или by that time = к тому времени:

  • Karen finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then (or by that time), most of the guests had left.
    Карен всё-таки приехала на вечеринку в полночь, но к тому времени большая часть гостей ушла.

Упражнения

1. Составьте предложения с by.

  1. We have to be home not later than 5 o’clock.
  2. I have to be at the airport not later than 8.30.
  3. Let me know not later than Saturday whether you can come to the party.
  4. Please make sure that you’re here not later than 2 o’clock.
  5. If we leave now, we should arrive not later than lunchtime.

Key

2. Вставьте by или until.

  1. Steve has gone away. He’ll be away Monday.
  2. Sorry, but I must go. I have to be home 5 o’clock.
  3. I’ve been offered a job. I haven’t decided yet whether to accept it or not. I have to decide Friday.
  4. I think I’ll wait Thursday before making a decision.
  5. It’s too late to go shopping. The shops are open only 5.30. They’ll be closed now.
  6. I’d better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid tomorrow.
  7. Don’t pay the bill today. Wait tomorrow.
  8. Key
  9. A: Have you finished redecorating your house?
    B: Not yet. We hope to finish the end of the week.
  10. A: I’m going out now. I’ll be back at about 10.30. Will you still be here?
    B: I don’t think so. I’ll probably have gone out then.
  11. I’m moving into my new flat next week. I’m staying with a friend then.
  12. I’ve got a lot of work to do. the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.
  13. If you want to take part in the competition, you have to apply 3 April.

Key

3. Закончите эти предложения, используя свои собственные идеи. Используйте by или until.

  1. David is away at the moment. He’ll be away .
  2. David is away at the moment. He’ll be back .
  3. I’m just going out. I won’t be very long. Wait here .
  4. I’m going out to buy a few things. It’s 4.30 now. I won’t be long. I’ll be back .
  5. If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received .
  6. Last night I watched TV .

Key

4. Прочитайте ситуации и закончите предложения, используя By the time ... .

  1. I was invited to a party, but I got there much later than I intended.

    , most of the other guests had left.
  2. I intended to catch a train, but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

    , my train had already left.
  3. I wanted to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished much later than expected.

    it was too late to go shopping.
  4. I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steal a car. I called the police, but it was some time before they arrived.

    , the two men had disappeared.
  5. We climbed a mountain and it took us a very long time to get to the top. There wasn’t much time to enjoy the view.

    we had to come down again.

Key


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