Прилагательные и наречия. Разница между good и well

Урок 101

Начало этой темы в уроке 100.


Good/well

Goodприлагательное, а wellнаречие:

  • Your English is good. but You speak English well.
    Твой английский хорош. но Ты говоришь по-английски хорошо.
  • Susan is a good pianist. but Susan plays the piano well.
    Сьюзен – хорошая пианистка. но Сьюзен играет на пианино хорошо.

Мы используем wellне good) с причастиями прошедшего времени (dressed/known и т.п.):

well-dressed
хорошо одетый

well-known
(широко) известный

well-educated
хорошо образованный

well-paid
хорошо оплачиваемый

  • Gary’s father is a well-known writer.
    Отец Гари – известный писатель.

Но well также прилагательное со значением ‘in good health’ (здоровый), хотя часто переводится на русский язык наречием:

  • ‘How are you today? ‘I’m very well, thanks.’
    Как ты сегодня? — У меня всё хорошо. Спасибо.
Fast/hard/late

Эти слова являются и прилагательными, и наречиями:

прилагательное

наречие

  • Darren is a very fast runner.
    Дарен – очень быстрый бегун.
  • Kate is a hard worker.
    Катя – трудолюбивая работница.
  • I was late.
    Я опоздал. (досл.: я был запоздалый)
Darren can run very fast.
Дарен может бегать очень быстро.
Kate works hard. (not works hardly)
Катя усердно работает.
I got up late this morning.
Этим утром я встал поздно.

Lately = recently = недавно; в последнее время:

  • Have you seen Tom lately?
    Ты видел Тома в последнее время?
Hardly

Hardly = very little, almost not = едва ли, почти не. Изучите эти примеры:

  • Sarah wasn’t very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.
    (= she spoke to me very little, almost not at all)
    Сара была не слишком дружелюбна на вечеринке. Она едва ли говорила со мной.
  • We’ve only met once or twice. We hardly know each other.
    Мы встречались только один или два раза. Мы едва знаем друг друга.

Hard (настойчиво, упорно и др.) и hardly не похожи. Сравните:

  • He tried hard to find a job, but he had no luck. (= he tried a lot, with a lot of effort)
    Он изо всех сил старался найти работу, но ему не везло.
  • I’m not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to find one. (= he tried very little)
    Я не удивлен, что он не нашел работу. Он едва ли пытался ее найти.

Вы можете использовать hardly + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere:

  • A: How much money have we got?
    B: Hardly any. (= very little, almost none)
    A: Сколько у нас денег?
    Б: Почти нисколько.
  • These two cameras are very similar. There’s hardly any difference between them.
    Эти две камеры очень похожи. Между ними едва ли есть (какая-либо) разница.
  • The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed. (= very few students passed)
    Результаты экзамены были очень плохими. Почти никто из нашего класса не сдал.

Заметьте, что вы можете сказать:

  • She said hardly anything. или She hardly said anything.
    Она почти ничего не сказала.
  • We’ve got hardly any money. или We’ve hardly got any money.
    У нас почти нет денег.

I can hardly do something = это очень сложно для меня, почти невозможно:

  • Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. (= it is almost impossible to read it)
    Твой почекр ужасен. Я едва ли могу прочитать это.
  • My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk.
    У меня болела нога. Я едва мог идти.

Hardly ever = почти никогда:

  • I’m nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out.
    Я почти всегда дома по вечерам. Я почти никогда не выхожу из дома.

Hardly также означает ‘certainly not’ (несомненно не). Например:

  • It’s hardly surprising that you’re tired. You haven’t slept for three days. (= it’s certainly not surprising)
    Вряд ли стоит удивляться тому, что ты устал. Ты не спал три дня. (= это несомненно не удивляет
  • The situation is serious, but it’s hardly a crisis. (= it’s certainly not a crisis)
    Ситуация серьезная, но это не конец света (досл.: едва ли кризис). (= это несомненно не кризис)

Упражнения

1. Выберите good или well.

  1. I play tennis but I’m not very .
  2. Your exam results were very .
  3. You did in your exams.
  4. The weather was while we were on holiday.
  5. I didn’t sleep last night.
  6. How are you? Are you ?
  7. Key
  8. Lucy speaks German very .
  9. Lucy’s German is very .
  10. Our new business isn’t doing very at the moment.
  11. I like your hat. It looks on you.
  12. I’ve met her a few times, but I don’t know her .

Key

2. Закончите эти предложения, используя well + следующие слова:

behaved dressed informed kept known paid written

  1. The children were very good. They were .
  2. I’m surprised you haven’t heard of her. She is quite .
  3. Our neighbours’ garden is neat and tidy. It is very .
  4. I enjoyed the book you lent me. It’s a great story and it’s very .
  5. Tania knows a lot about many things. She is very .
  6. Mark’s clothes are always smart. He is always .
  7. Jane has a lot of responsibility in her job, but she isn’t very .

Key

3. Выделенные жирным слова правильные или неправильные? Исправьте там, где необходимо.

1.
I’m tired because I’ve been working hard.
2.
I tried hard to remember her name, but I couldn’t.
3.
This coat is practically unused. I’ve hardly worn it.
4.
Judy is a good tennis player. She hits the ball hardly.
5.
Don’t walk so fast! I can’t keep up with you.
6.
I had plenty of time, so I was walking slow.

Key

4. Закончите предложения. Используйте hardly + следующие глаголы (в правильной форме):

change hear know recognise say sleep speak

  1. Scott and Tracy have only met once before. They each other.
  2. You’re speaking very quietly. I can you.
  3. I’m very tired this morning. I last night.
  4. We were so shocked when we heard the news, we could .
  5. Kate was very quiet this evening. She a word.
  6. You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You’ve .
  7. I met Dave a few days ago. I hadn’t seen him for a long time and he looks very different now. I him.

Key

5. Закончите эти предложения с hardly + any/anybody/anything/anywhere/ever.

  1. I’ll have to go shopping. There’s to eat.
  2. It was a very warm day and there was wind.
  3. ‘Do you know much about computers?’ ‘No, .’
  4. The hotel was almost empty. There was staying there.
  5. I listen to the radio quite often, but I watch television.
  6. Key
  7. Our new boss is not very popular. likes her.
  8. It was very crowded in the room. There was to sit.
  9. We used to be good friends, but we see each other now.
  10. It was nice driving this morning. There was traffic.
  11. I hate this town. There’s to do and to go.

Key


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