Разница между could (do) и could have (done)

Урок 27
A

Мы используем could по-разному. Иногда could это прошедшее время модального глагола can (см. урок 26):

  • Listen. I can hear something. (now)
  • I listened. I could hear something. (past)

Но это не единственный способ использования could. Мы также используем could, говоря о возможных действиях в настоящем или будущем (особенно выступая с предложениями (suggestions)).
Например:

  • A: What shall we do this evening?
    B: We could go to the cinema.
  • A: When you go to Paris next month, you could stay with Julia.
    B: Yes, I suppose I could.

Can тоже возможно в этих предложениях (‘We can go to the cinema.’ и др.). С could предложение (suggestion) менее реалистичное (less sure), т.е. меньше уверенности в таком развитии событий.

B

Мы также используем could (не can) для нереалистичных действий. Например:

  • I’m so tired, I could sleep for a week. (not I can sleep for a week)

Сравните can и could:

  • I can stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (реалистично)
  • Maybe I could stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (возможно, но меньше уверенности)
  • This is a wonderful place. I could stay here for ever. (нереалистично)
C

Мы также используем could (не can), чтобы сказать, что что-то возможно сейчас или в будущем. Значение схоже с might или may (см. урок 29):

  • The story could be true, but I don’t think it is. (not can be true)
  • I don’t know what time Liz is coming. She could get here at any time.
D

Мы используем could have (done), когда говорим о прошлом. Сравните:

  • I’m so tired, I could sleep for a week. (now)
    I was so tired, I could have slept for a week. (past)
  • The situation is bad, but it could be worse. (now)
    The situation was bad, but it could have been worse. (past)

Что-то could have happened (могло случиться) = это было возможно, но не случилось:

  • Why did you stay at a hotel when you were in Paris? You could have stayed with Julia. (ты не остановился у нее)
  • I didn’t know that you wanted to go to the concert. I could have got you a ticket. (я не взял тебе билет)
  • Dave was lucky. He could have hurt himself when he fell, but he’s OK.
E

Мы используем couldn’t, говоря о том, что не было бы возможно сейчас:

  • I couldn’t live in a big city. I’d hate it. (= это не было бы возможно для меня)
  • Everything is fine right now. Things couldn’t be better.

В прошедшем времени мы используем couldn’t have (done):

  • We had a really good holiday. It couldn’t have been better.
  • The trip was cancelled last week. Paul couldn’t have gone anyway because he was ill. (= это не было бы возможным для него)

Упражнения

1. Ответьте на вопросы, предлагая что-нибудь с could.

  1. Where shall we go for our holidays?
    (to Scotland)
  2. What shall we have for dinner tonight?
    (fish)
  3. When shall I phone Angela?
    (now)
  4. What shall I give Ann for her birthday?
    (a book)
  5. Where shall we hang this picture?
    (in the kitchen)

Key

2. В некоторых предложениях, нужно использовать could (а не can). Исправьте предложения, если необходимо.

1. The story can be true, but I don’t think it is.
2. It’s a nice day. We can go for a walk.
3. I’m so angry with him. I can kill him!
4. If you’re hungry, we can have dinner now.
5. It’s so nice here. I can stay here all day, but unfortunately I have to go.
6. A: Where’s my bag. Have you seen it?
B: No, but it can be in the car.
7. Peter is a keen musician. He plays the flute and he can also play the piano.
8. A: I need to borrow a camera.
B: You can borrow mine.
9. The weather is nice now, but it can change later.

Key

3. Закончите предложения. Используйте could или could have + подходящий глагол.

  1. A: What shall we do this evening?
    B: I don’t mind. We to the cinema.
  2. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday.
    B: Why did you stay at home? You out with us.
  3. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. You for it.
    B: What sort of job? Show me the advertisement.
  4. A: How was your exam? Was it difficult?
    B: It wasn’t so bad. It worse.
  5. A: I got very wet walking home in the rain last night.
    B: Why did you walk? You a taxi.
  6. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow?
    B: Well, I to your house if you like.

Key

4. Закончите предложения. Используйте couldn’t или couldn’t have + эти глаголы (в правильной форме):

be be come find get live wear

  1. I in a big city. I’d hate it.
  2. We had a really good holiday. It better.
  3. I that hat. I’d look silly and people would laugh at me.
  4. We managed to find the restaurant you recommended, but we it without the map that you drew for us.
  5. Paul has to get up at 4 o’clock every morning. I don’t know how he does it. I up at that time every day.
  6. The staff at the hotel were really nice when we stayed there last summer. They more helpful.
  7. A: I tried to phone you last week. We had a party and I wanted to invite you.
    B: That was nice of you, but I anyway. I was away all last week.

Key



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