Неопределенные местоимения No/none/any; Nothing/nobody и др.

Урок 86
A

No и none

Мы используем no + существительное. No = not a или not any:

  • We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= there wasn’t a bus)
    Нам пришлось идти домой пешком, потому что не было ни одного автобуса.
  • Sue will have no difficulty (in) finding a job. (= Sue won’t have any difficulty ...)
    У Сью не возникнет (никаких) проблем с поиском работы.
  • There were no shops open. (= There weren’t any shops open.)
    Ни один магазин не был открыт.

Вы можете использовать no + существительное в начале предложения:

  • No reason was given for the change of plan.
    Не было (никаких) причин менять планы.

Мы используем none без существительного:

  • ‘How much money do you have?’ ‘None.’ (= no money = ни сколько)
  • All the tickets have been sold. There are none left. (= no tickets left = ни одного билета не осталось)

Или мы используем none of ... :

  • This money is all yours. None of it is mine.
    Досл.: Эти деньги – все твои. Ничего из этого не моё.

После none of + множественное число (none of the students, none of them и др.) глагол может быть в единственном или множественном числе. Глагол во множественном числе встречается чаще:

  • None of the shops were (or was) open.
    Ни один из магазинов не был открыт.
B

Nothing nobody/no-one nowhere

Вы можете использовать эти отрицательные слова в начале предложения или в одиночку (как ответы на вопросы):

  • Nobody (or No-one) came to visit me while I was in hospital. (Никто не пришел...)
  • ‘What happened?’ ‘Nothing.’ (Ничего)
  • ‘Where are you going?’ ‘Nowhere. (Никуда) I’m staying here.’

Вы также можете использовать эти слова после глагола, особенно после be и have:

  • The house is empty. There’s nobody living there.
    Дом пуст. Никто там не живет.
  • We had nothing to eat.
    У нас ничего не было поесть.

Nothing/nobody и др. = not + anything/anybody и др. :

  • I didn’t say anything. (= I said nothing.)
    Я ничего не сказал.
  • Jane didn’t tell anybody about her plans. (= Jane told nobody ...)
    Джейн никому не сказала о своих планах.
  • They haven’t got anywhere to live. (= They’ve got nowhere to live.)
    Им негде жить.

С nothing/nobody и др., не используйте глагол с отрицанием (isn’t, didn’t и т.п.), а при переводе на русский используйте:

  • I said nothing. (not I didn’t say nothing)
    Я ничего не говорил.
  • Nobody tells me anything. (not Nobody doesn’t tell me)
    Никто ничего мне не говорит.
C

Мы также используем any/anything/anybody и др. (без not), имея в виду ‘не важно который/что/кто’ (см. урок 85D). Сравните no- и any-:

  • There was no bus, so we walked home.
    You can take any bus. They all go to the centre. (= не важно какой)
  • ‘What do you want to eat?’ ‘Nothing. I’m not hungry.’
    I’m so hungry. I could eat anything. (= не важно что)
  • The exam was extremely difficult. Nobody passed. (= все завалили экзамен)
    The exam was very easy. Anybody could have passed. (= кто угодно мог сдать)
D

После nobody/no-one можно использовать they/them/their (см. также урок 85E):

  • Nobody phoned, did they? (= did he or she)
  • No-one did what I asked them to do. (= him or her)
  • Nobody in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)

Упражнения

1. Закончите предложения, выбрав no, none или any.

  1. It was a public holiday, so there were shops open.
  2. I haven’t got money. Can you lend me some?
  3. We had to walk home because there were taxis.
  4. We had to walk home because there weren’t taxis.
  5. ‘How many eggs have we got?’ ‘. Do you want me to get some?’
  6. We took a few photographs, but of them were very good.
  7. What a stupid thing to do! intelligent person would do such a thing.
  8. I’ll try and answer questions you ask me.
  9. I couldn’t answer of the questions they asked me.
  10. We cancelled the party because of the people we invited were able to come.
  11. I tried to phone Chris, but there was answer.

Key

2. Ответьте на вопросы, выбрав none/nobody/nothing/nowhere.

1.
What did you do?
2.
Who were you talking to?
3.
How much luggage have you got?
4.
Where are you going?
5.
How many mistakes did you make?
6.
How much did you pay?

Key

А теперь отверьте на эти же вопросы, используя полные предложения с any/anybody/anything/anywhere.

7.
(1)
8.
(2)
9.
(3)
10.
(4)
11.
(5)
12.
(6)

Key

3. Закончите эти предложения с no- или any- + -body/-thing/-where.

  1. I don’t want to drink. I’m not thirsty.
  2. The bus was completely empty. There was on it.
  3. ‘Where did you go for your holidays?’ ‘. I stayed at home.’
  4. I went to the shops, but I didn’t buy .
  5. ‘What did you buy?’ ‘. I couldn’t find I wanted.’
  6. The town is still the same as it was years ago. has changed.
  7. Have you seen my watch? I can’t find it .
  8. There was complete silence in the room. said .

Key

4. Отметьте галочкой правильное слово.

  1. She didn’t tell nobody / anybody about her plans. (anybody - правильный вариант)
  2. The accident looked serious, but fortunately nobody / anybody was badly injured.
  3. I looked out of the window, but I couldn’t see no-one / anyone.
  4. My job is very easy. Nobody / Anybody could do it.
  5. ‘What’s in that box?’ ‘ Nothing / Anything. It’s empty.’
  6. The situation is uncertain. Nothing / Anything could happen.
  7. I don’t know nothing / anything about economics.

Key


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