Модальные глаголы must и can’t

Урок 28
A

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

— My house is very near the motorway.
— It must be very noisy.

— Мой дом стоит очень близко к автостраде.
— Там, должно быть, очень шумно.

Вы можете использовать модальный глагол must, когда вы уверены в чем-то. Дословно на русский язык must be переводится как должно быть, но можно также использовать ‘возможно, вероятно, наверняка, наверное и др.’

  • You’ve been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Езда изматывает, и раз ты ездил весь день, то, вероятно, устал.)
  • ‘Jim is a hard worker.’ ‘Jim? You must be joking. He doesn’t do anything.’
  • Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.
  • I’m sure Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere.

Вы можете использовать can’t для обратного значения, т.е. когда убеждены, что что-то невозможно:

  • You’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry already. (Обычно, люди не ощущают голода сразу после еды. Ты только что ел, так что ты не можешь быть голодным.)
  • They haven’t lived here for very long. They can’t know many people.

Изучите структуру предложений с must и can’t:

I/you/he (etc.) must
can’t
be (tired / hungry / at work etc.)
be (doing / going / joking etc.)
do / get / know / have etc.
B

Для прошедшего времени мы используем must have (done) и can’t have (done).

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

There’s nobody at home. They must have gone out.

Мартин и Люси стоят у дверей дома своих друзей. Они уже дважды звонили в дверь, но никто не ответил. Люси говорит:

They must have gone out. Они, наверное (должно быть), ушли.

  • I didn’t hear the phone. I must have been asleep.
  • ‘I’ve lost one of my gloves.’ ‘You must have dropped it somewhere.’
  • Sue hasn’t contacted me. She can’t have got my message.
  • Tom walked into a wall. He can’t have been looking where he was going.

Изучите структуру этих предложений:

I/you/he (etc.) must
can’t
have been (asleep / at work etc.)
been (doing / looking etc.)
gone / got / known etc.

Вместо can’t have можно использовать couldn’t have:

  • Sue couldn’t have got my message.
  • Tom couldn’t have been looking where he was going.

Упражнения

1. Выберите must или can’t.

  1. You’ve been travelling all day. You be tired.
  2. That restaurant be very good. It’s always full of people.
  3. That restaurant be very good. It’s always empty.
  4. I’m sure I gave you the key. You have it. Have you looked in your bag?
  5. You’re going on holiday next week. You be looking forward to it.
  6. It rained every day during their holiday, so they have had a very nice time.
  7. Congratulations on passing your exam. You be very pleased.
  8. You got here very quickly. You have walked very fast.
  9. Bill and Sue always travel business class, so they be short of money.

Key

2. Закончите каждое предложение глаголом (один или два слова) в правильной форме.

  1. I’ve lost one of my gloves. I must it somewhere.
  2. They haven’t lived here for very long. They can’t many people.
  3. Ted isn’t at work today. He must ill.
  4. Ted wasn’t at work last week. He must ill.
  5. (the doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can’t Mary. She’s still at work at this time.
  6. Sarah knows a lot about films. She must to the cinema a lot.
  7. Look. James is putting on his hat and coat. He must out.
  8. I left my bike outside the house last night and now it has gone. Somebody must it.
  9. Amy was in a very difficult situation when she lost her job. It can’t easy for her.
  10. There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last twenty minutes. He must us.

Key

3. Прочитайте ситуации и напишите предложения с must have и can’t have, используя слова в скобках.

  1. The phone rang, but I didn’t hear it. (I / asleep)
  2. Sue hasn’t contacted me. (she / get / my message)
  3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it / very expensive)
  4. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. (they / go away)
  5. I can’t find my umbrella. (I / leave / it in the restaurant last night)
  6. Dave, who is usually very friendly, walked past me without speaking. (he / see / me)
  7. There was a man standing outside the café. (he / wait / for somebody)
  8. Key
  9. Liz did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she / understand / what I said)
  10. When I got back to my car, the door was unlocked. (I / forget / to lock it)
  11. I was woken up in the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours / have / a party)
  12. The light was red, but the car didn’t stop. (the driver / see / the red light)

Key



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