Сравнительная степень прилагательных и наречий в английском языке

Урок 105
A

Изучите эти примеры:

How shall we travel? By car or by train?

Let’s go by car. It’s cheaper.
Don’t go by train. It’s more expensive.

Cheaper (дешевле) и more expensive (дороже) – формы сравнительной степени (comparative forms).

После сравнительной степени вы можете использовать than (см. урок 107):

  • It’s cheaper to go by car than by train.
    Дешевле поехать на машине, чем на поезде.
  • Going by train is more expensive than going by car.
    Поездка на поезде обойдется дороже, чем на машине.
B

Сравнительная степень образуется с помощью суффикса -er или вспомогательного слова more ... .

Мы используем -er для коротких слов (один слог):

Мы используем more ... для более длинных слов (два слога и более):

cheap → cheaper
large → larger
fast → faster
thin → thinner
more serious
more expensive
more often
more comfortable

Мы также используем -er со словами из двух слогов, которые оканчиваются на -y (-yier):

Мы также используем more ... с наречиями, которые оканчиваются на -ly:

lucky → luckier
easy → easier
early → earlier
pretty → prettier
more slowly
more quietly
more seriously
more carefully

Сравните эти примеры:

  • You’re older than me.
    Ты старше, чем я.
  • The exam was fairly easy - easier than I expected.
    Экзамен был довольно легкий - легче, чем я ожидал.
  • Can you walk a bit faster?
    Можешь идти чуть быстрее?
  • I’d like to have a bigger car.
    Я бы хотел машину побольше.
  • Last night I went to bed earlier than usual.
    Вчера я лег спать раньше, чем обычно.
  • You’re more patient than me.
    Ты терпеливее, чем я.
  • The exam was quite difficult - more difficult than I expected.
    Экзамен был довольно сложный - сложнее, чем я ожидал.
  • Can you walk a bit more slowly?
    Можешь идти чуть медленнее?
  • I’d like to have a more reliable car.
    Я бы хотел машину понадёжнее.
  • I don’t play tennis much these days. I used to play more often.
    В последнее время я играю в теннис нечасто. Раньше я играла чаще.

Вы можете использовать -er или more ... с прилагательными из двух слогов, особенно:

clever narrow quiet shallow simple

  • It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter / more quiet?
    Здесь слишком шумно. Мы можем пойти куда-нибудь, где потише?
C

Несколько прилагательных и наречий имеют неправильные сравнительные формы:

good/well → better:

  • The garden looks better since you tidied it up.
    Сад выглядит лучше после того, как ты в нем прибрался.
  • I know him well - probably better than anybody else knows him.
    Я хорошо его знаю, возможно, лучше, чем кто-либо другой.

bad/badly → worse:

  • ‘How is your headache? Better?’ ‘No, it’s worse.’
    ‘Как голова? (досл.: головная боль)? Лучше?’ ‘Нет, хуже.’
  • He did very badly in the exam - worse than expected.

far → further (или farther):

  • It’s a long walk from here to the park - further than I thought. (или farther than)
    Отсюда далеко идти до парка - дальше, чем я думал.

Further (но не farther) может также означать ‘more’ или ‘additional’ (дополнительный):

  • Let me know if you hear any further news. (= any more news = еще какие-нибудь (дополнительные) новости)

Упражнения

1. Закончите предложения, используя сравнительную степень (older / more important и т.п.).

  1. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ?
  2. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit .
  3. The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be .
  4. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be .
  5. The weather is too cold here. I’d like to live somewhere .
  6. My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something .
  7. It’s a pity you live so far away. I wish you lived .
  8. I was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I thought it would be .
  9. Key
  10. Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do .
  11. Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be .
  12. I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the journey to take .
  13. You’re talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit ?
  14. You hardly ever phone me. Why don’t you phone me ?
  15. You’re standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit away?
  16. You were a bit depressed yesterday, but you look today.

Key

2. Закончите предложения. Каждый раз используйте сравнительную форму одного из слов в рамочке. Используйте than там, где необходимо.

big
interested
crowded
peaceful
early
reliable
easily
serious
high
simple
important
thin
  1. I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed usual.
  2. I’d like to have a car. The one I’ve got keeps breaking down.
  3. Unfortunately her illness was we thought at first.
  4. You look . Have you lost weight?
  5. I want a flat. We don’t have enough space here.
  6. He doesn’t study very hard. He’s in having a good time.
  7. Health and happiness are money.
  8. Key
  9. The instructions were very complicated. They could have been .
  10. There were a lot of people on the bus. It was usual.
  11. I like living in the countryside. It’s living in a town.
  12. You’ll find your way around the town if you have a good map.
  13. In some parts of the country, prices are in others.

Key

3. Прочитайте ситуации и закончите предложения. Используйте сравнительную степень (-er или more ...).

  1. Yesterday the temperature was six degrees. Today it’s only three degrees.
  2. The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.
  3. Dave and I went for a run. I ran ten kilometres. Dave stopped after eight kilometres.
  4. Chris and Joe both did badly in the test. Chris got 30%, but Joe only got 25%.
  5. I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o’clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30.
  6. You can go by bus or by train. The buses run every 30 minutes. The trains run every hour.
  7. We were very busy at work today. We’re not usually as busy as that.

Key


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