Present perfect 2 (продолжение)

Урок 8
A

Изучите следующий диалог:

DAVE:
Have you travelled a lot, Jane?
JANE:
Yes, I’ve been to lots of places.
DAVE:
Really? Have you ever been to China?
JANE:
Yes, I’ve been to China twice.
DAVE:
What about India?
JANE:
No, I haven’t been to India.

Когда мы говорим о промежутке времени, который длится из прошлого до настоящего момента времени, мы используем present perfect (have been / have travelled и др.). Здесь, Дэйв и Джэйн говорят о местах, которые Джэйн посещала в своей жизни (а это промежуток времени, который продолжался до текущего момента).

Еще немного примеров:

  • Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life)
  • We’ve never had a car.
  • Have you read Hamlet?’ ‘No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s plays.’
  • Susan really loves that film. She’s seen it eight times!
  • What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.

Been (to) = visited = посещал:

  • I’ve never been to China. Have you been there?

В следующих примерах тоже говорят о периоде времени, который продолжается до текущего момента (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast и др.):

  • Have you heard from Brian recently?
  • I’ve met a lot of people in the last few days.
  • Everything is going well. We haven’t had any problems so far.
  • I’m hungry. I haven’t eaten anything since breakfast. (= от завтрака до данного момента)
  • It’s good to see you again. We haven’t seen each other for a long time.
B

Мы используем present perfect со словами today / this evening / this year и др., когда эти промежутки времени не завершены к моменту речи (см. также урок 14B):

  • I’ve drunk four cups of coffee today.
  • Have you had a holiday this year (yet)?
  • I haven’t seen Tom this morning. Have you?
  • Rob hasn’t studied very hard this term.
C

Мы говорим: Это случилось в (первый) раз. Например:

  • Don is having a driving lesson. It’s his first one.
    It’s the first time he has driven a car. (not drives)
    or He has never driven a car before.
  • Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened. (not happens)
  • Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That’s the third time he’s phoned her this evening.

Упражнения

1. Вы задаете людям вопросы о том, что они когда-либо делали. Задайте вопросы, используя ever и слова в скобках.

  1. (ride / horse?) ...
  2. (be / California?) Have ...
  3. (run / marathon?) ...
  4. (speak / famous person?) ...
  5. (most beautiful place / visit?) What’s ...

Key

2. Закончите ответы B. Некоторые предложения отрицательные. Используйте следующие глаголы:

be be eat happen have meet play read see see try

  1. A: What’s Mark’s sister like?
    B: I’ve no idea. her.
  2. A: How is Diane these days?
    B: I don’t know. I her recently.
  3. A: Are you hungry?
    B: Yes. I much today.
  4. A: Can you play chess?
    B: Yes, but for ages.
  5. A: Are you enjoying your holiday?
    B: Yes, it’s the best holiday for a long time.
  6. A: What’s that book like?
    B: I don’t know. it.
  7. Key
  8. A: Is Brussels an interesting place?
    B: I’ve no idea. there.
  9. A: Mike was late for work again today.
    B: Again? He late every day this week.
  10. A: Do you like caviar?
    B: I don’t know. it.
  11. A: I hear your car broke down again yesterday.
    B: Yes, it’s the second time this week.
  12. A: Who’s that woman by the door?
    B: I don’t know. her before.

Key

3. Закончите предложения, используя today / this year / this term и др.

  1. I saw Tom yesterday, but ...
  2. I read a newspaper yesterday, but I ...
  3. Last year the company made a profit, but this year ...
  4. Tracy worked hard at school last term, but ...
  5. It snowed a lot last winter, but ...
  6. Our football team won a lot of games last season, but we ...

Key

4. Прочитайте ситуации и напишите предложения, как показано в примере.

  1. Jack is driving a car, but he’s very nervous and not sure what to do.
    You ask:
    He says:
  2. Ben is playing tennis. He’s not good at it and he doesn’t know the rules.
    You ask:
    He says:
  3. Sue is riding a horse. She doesn’t look very confident or comfortable.
    You ask:
    She says:
  4. Maria is in London. She has just arrived and it’s very new for her.
    You ask:
    She says:

Key



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