Past perfect (I had done) Прошедшее совершенное

Урок 15
A

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too, but they didn’t see each other. Paul left the party at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock. Пол покинул вечеринку в 10:30, а Сара прибыла в 11 часов. Итак:

When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn’t there.
Когда Сара прибыла на вечеринку, Пола там не было.

He had gone home. Он ушел домой.

Had gone это the past perfect (simple):

I/we/they/you
he/she/it
had (= I’d etc.)
(= he’d etc.)
gone
seen
finished
etc.

The past perfect simple это had + past participle - причастие прошедшего времени (gone/seen/finished etc).

Иногда мы говорим о событиях, случившихся в прошлом:

  • Sarah arrived at the party.

Это начальная точка отсчета нашей истории. Затем, если мы хотим поговорить о событиях, случившихся до этого времени, мы используем past perfect (had ...):

  • When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.
    Когда Сара прибыла на вечеринку, Пол уже ушел домой.

Еще немного примеров:

  • When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
    Когда мы вернулись домой прошлой ночью, мы обнаружили, что кто-то побывал в квартире.
  • Karen didn’t want to go to the cinema with us because she’d already seen the film.
    Карен не хотела ехать в кино с нами, потому что она уже видела этот фильм.
  • At first I thought I’d done the right thing, but I soon realised that I’d made a big mistake.
    Сначала я думал, что сделал правильную вещь, но вскоре понял, что сделал большую ошибку.
  • The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn’t flown before. or ... He had never flown before.
    Человек, который сидел рядом со мной в самолете, очень нервничал. Он (никогда) раньше не летал.
B

Сравните the present perfect (have seen etc.) и the past perfect (had seen etc.):

  • Who is that woman? I’ve never seen her before.
    Кто эта женщина? Я никогда ее не видела.
  • We aren’t hungry. We’ve just had lunch.
    Мы не голодные. Мы только что пообедали.
  • The house is dirty. They haven’t cleaned it for weeks.
    Дом грязный. Они не убирали его неделями.
  • I didn’t know who she was. I’d never seen her before. (= до этого времени)
    Я не знал, кто она была. Я никогда ее до этого не видел.
  • We weren’t hungry. We’d just had lunch.
    Мы не были голодны. Мы только что пообедали.
  • The house was dirty. They hadn’t cleaned it for weeks.
    Дом был грязным. Они не убирали его неделями.
C

Сравните the past simple (left, was etc.) и the past perfect (had left, had been etc.):

  • A: Was Tom there when you arrived?
    B: Yes, but he left soon afterwards.
    A: Том был там, когда ты приехал?
    В: Да, но он уехал вскоре после этого.
  • Kate wasn’t at home when I phoned. She was at her mother’s house.
    Катя не была дома, когда я звонил. Она была дома у мамы.
  • A: Was Tom there when you arrived?
    B: No, he had already left.
    А: Том был там, когда ты приехал?
    В: Нет, он уже уехал.
  • Kate had just got home when I phoned. She had been at her mother’s house.
    Катя уже уехала домой, когда я звонил. Она была дома у мамы.

Упражнения

1. Прочитайте ситуации и составьте предложения из слов в скобках.

  1. You went to Sue’s house, but she wasn’t there.
    (she / go / out)
  2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before.
    (it / change / a lot)
  3. I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn’t come.
    (she / arrange / to do something else)
  4. You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late.
    (the film / already / begin)
  5. It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time.
    (I / not / see / him for five years)
  6. I offered Sue something to eat, but she wasn’t hungry.
    (she / just / have / breakfast)

Key

2. Для каждой ситуации напишите предложение с never ... before. Используйте глагол в скобках.

  1. The man sitting next to you on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
    (fly) ...
  2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.
    (see) I ... before.
  3. Sam played tennis yesterday. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game.
    (play) He ...
  4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.
    (be there) We ...

Key

3. Используйте предложения слева, чтобы завершить параграф справа. Эти предложения находятся в порядке случившихся событий, т.е. (1) случилось до (2), (2) до (3) и т.д. Но ваш параграф начинается с подчеркнутого предложения, поэтому иногда вам нужно использовать past perfect.

1.

(1) Somebody broke into the office during the night.
(2) We arrived at work in the morning.
(3) We called the police.


{

We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody into the office during the night. So we .

Key

2.

(1) Laura went out this morning.
(2) I tried to phone her.
(3) There was no answer.


{

I tried to phone Laura this morning, but no answer. She out.

Key

3.

(1) Jim came back from holiday a few days ago.
(2) I met him the same day.
(3) He looked very well.


{

I met Jim a few days ago. just holiday. very well.

Key

4.

(1) Kevin sent Sally lots of emails.
(2) She never replied to them.
(3) Yesterday he got a phone call from her.
(4) He was very surprised.


{

Yesterday Kevin from Sally. He very surprised. He lots of emails, but she .

Key

4. Поставьте глагол в правильную форму: past perfect (I had done) или past simple (I did).

  1. ‘Was Paul at the party when you arrived?’ ‘No, he (go) home.’
  2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed.
  3. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed.
  4. Sorry I’m late. The car (break) down on my way here.
  5. We were driving along the road when we (see) a car which (break) down, so we (stop) to help.

Key


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