How long have you (been) ... ?

Урок 11
A

Изучите следующую ситуацию:

Dan and Jenny are married. (состоят в браке) They got married exactly 20 years ago, so today is their 20th wedding anniversary.

They have been married for 20 years. (состоят в браке 20 лет)

Мы говорим: They are married. (present)

но
How long have they been married? (present perfect)
 
(not How long are they married?)
 
They have been married for 20 years.
 
(not They are married for 20 years)

Как вы могли заметить, русская фраза ‘состоят в браке’ на английском обозначается разными временами в зависимости от наличия промежутка времени.

Мы используем present perfect, говоря о чем-либо, начавшемся в прошлом и продолжающемся в настоящем. Сравните the present и the present perfect:

  • Bill is in hospital.

но

He has been in hospital since Monday.
(not Bill is in hospital since Monday)

  • Do you know each other well?

но

Have you known each other for a long time?
(not Do you know)

  • She’s waiting for somebody.

но

She’s been waiting all morning.

  • Do they have a car?

но

How long have they had their car?

B

I have known/had/lived etc. это the present perfect simple.
I have been learning / been waiting / been doing etc. это the present perfect continuous.

Когда мы спрашиваем или говорим ‘how long’, мы обычно используем continuous (см. урок 10):

  • I’ve been learning English for six months.
  • It’s been raining since lunchtime.
  • Richard has been doing the same job for 20 years.
  • How long have you been driving?’ ‘Since I was 17.’

Некоторые глаголы (например, know/like/believe) обычно не используются в continuous:

  • How long have you known Jane? (not have you been knowing)
  • I’ve had a pain in my stomach all day. (not I’ve been having)

См. также урок 4A и урок 10C. О глаголе have, см. урок 17.

C

С глаголами live и work вы можете использовать как present perfect continuous, так и present perfect simple:

  • Julia has been living / has lived in Paris for a long time.
  • How long have you been working / have you worked here?

Но с always мы используем simple (I’ve lived / I’ve done и др.):

  • I’ve always lived in the country. (not always been living)
D

Мы говорим ‘I haven’t done something since/for ...’ (present perfect simple):

  • I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. (= последний раз я видел его в понедельник)
  • Sue hasn’t phoned for ages. (= последний раз она звонила ‘сто лет назад’)

Упражнения

1. Находятся ли подчеркнутые глаголы в правильной грамматической форме? Исправьте, если необходимо.

1. Bob is a friend of mine. I know him very well.
2. Bob is a friend of mine. I know him for a long time.
3. Sue and Alan are married since July.
4. The weather is awful. It’s raining again.
5. The weather is awful. It’s raining all day.
6. I like your house. How long are you living there?
7. Gary is working in a shop for the last few months.
8. I don’t know Tim well. We’ve only met a few times.
9. I gave up drinking coffee. I don’t drink it for a year.
10. That’s a very old bike. How long do you have it?

Key

2. Прочитайте ситуации и напишите вопросы, используя слова в скобках.

  1. John tells you that his mother is in hospital. You ask him:
    (how long / be / in hospital?)
  2. You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her:
    (how long / teach / English?)
  3. You know that Jane is a good friend of Caroline’s. You ask Jane:
    (how long / know / Caroline?)
  4. Your friend’s brother went to Australia some time ago and he’s still there. You ask your friend:
    (how long / be / in Australia?)
  5. Key
  6. Tim always wears the same jacket. It’s a very old jacket. You ask him:
    (how long / have / that jacket?)
  7. You are talking to a friend about Joe. Joe now works at the airport. You ask your friend:
    (how long / work / at the airport?)
  8. A friend of yours is learning to drive. You ask him:
    (how long / learn / to drive?)
  9. You meet somebody on a plane. She says that she lives in Chicago. You ask her:
    (always / live / in Chicago?)

Key

3. Закончите ответы B на вопросы A.

  1. A: Bill is in hospital, isn’t he?
    B: Yes, he in hospital since Monday.
  2. A: Do you see Ann very often?
    B: No, I her for three months.
  3. A: Is Margaret married?
    B: Yes, she married for ten years.
  4. A: Are you waiting for me?
    B: Yes, I for the last half hour.
  5. A: You know Linda, don’t you?
    B: Yes, we each other a long time.
  6. A: Do you still play tennis?
    B: No, I tennis for years.
  7. A: Is Jim watching TV?
    B: Yes, he TV all evening.
  8. A: Do you watch TV a lot?
    B: No, I TV for ages.
  9. Key
  10. A: Have you got a headache?
    B: Yes, I a headache all morning.
  11. A: George is never ill, is he?
    B: No, he ill since I’ve known him.
  12. A: Are you feeling ill?
    B: Yes, I ill all day.
  13. A: Sue lives in London, doesn’t she?
    B: Yes, she in London for the last few years.
  14. A: Do you go to the cinema a lot?
    B: No, I to the cinema for ages.
  15. A: Would you like to go to New York one day?
    B: Yes, I to go to New York. (используйте always / want)

Key



Поставьте галочку "поделиться с друзьями", чтобы получать уведомления об ответах на ваши комментарии, иначе их можно будет увидеть только через компьютер, без уведомлений.

Только зарегистрированные пользователи могут добавлять комментарии.