Разница между have to и must

Урок 31
A

I have to do something = я должен сделать это, необходимо сделать это, я вынужден это сделать, внешние обстоятельства заставляют меня это сделать:

  • You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left.
  • I have to wear glasses for reading.
  • George can’t come out with us this evening. He has to work late.
  • Last week Tina broke her arm and had to go to hospital.
  • I haven’t had to go to the doctor for ages.

В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях мы используем do/does/didpresent и past simple)

  • What do I have to do to get a new driving licence? (not What have I to do?)
  • Karen doesn’t have to work Saturdays. (not Karen hasn’t to)
  • Why did you have to leave early?

Вы можете использовать have to с will и might/may:

  • If the pain gets worse, you’ll have to go to the doctor.
  • I might have to work late tomorrow evening. или I may have to work ... (= возможно, мне придется поработать допоздна)
B

Модальный глагол must схож с have to:

  • It’s later than I thought. I must go. или I have to go.

Вы можете использовать must, когда высказываете своё мнение (например, говорите кому-то, что это необходимо сделать или рекомендуете это сделать). Have to также возможно:

  • I haven’t spoken to Sue for ages. I must phone her. (= я думаю, что это необходимо)
  • Mark is a really nice person. You must meet him. (я рекомендую)

Мы используем have to (не must), когда говорим об обязанностях. Мнение говорящего по этому поводу не учитывается. We use have to (not must) to say what someone is obliged to do. The speaker is not giving his/her own opinion:

  • I have to work from 8.30 to 5.30 every day. (факт, не мнение)
  • Jane has to travel a lot for her work.

Must чаще используется в инструкциях и написанных правилах.

  • Applications for the job must be received by 18 May.
  • (инструкция к экзамену) You must write your answers in ink.

В прошедшем времени must не используется:

  • We had to leave early. (not we must)
C

Mustn’t и don’t have to имеют совершенно разное значение:

You mustn’t do something = необходимо, чтобы ты не делал этого (поэтому, не делай это):

You don’t have to do something = тебе не нужно этого делать (но если хочешь, ты можешь):

  • You must keep it a secret. You mustn’t tell anyone. (= никому не говори)
  • I promised I would be on time. I mustn’t be late. (= я должен быть вовремя)
  • You don’t have to tell him, but you can if you want to.
  • I don’t have to be at the meeting, but I think I’ll go anyway.

Вы можете использовать have got to вместо have to. Поэтому, можно сказать:

  • I’ve got to work tomorrow. или I have to work tomorrow.
  • When has Liz got to go? или When does Liz have to go?

Упражнения

1. Закончите предложения с have to / has to / had to.

  1. Bill starts work at 5 a.m. at four. (he / get up)
  2. ‘I broke my arm last week.’ ‘ to hospital?’ (you / go)
  3. There was a lot of noise from the street. the window. (we / close)
  4. Karen can’t stay for the whole meeting. early. (she / leave)
  5. How old to drive in your country? (you / be)
  6. I don’t have much time. . (I / hurry)
  7. How is Paul enjoying his new job? a lot? (he / travel)
  8. ‘I’m afraid I can’t stay long.’ ‘What time ?’ (you / go)
  9. ‘The bus was late again.’ ‘How long ?’ (you / wait)
  10. There was nobody to help me. I everything by myself. (I / do)

Key

2. Закончите предложения, используя have to + глаголы из списка. Некоторые предложения утвердительные (I have to ... и т.д.), а некоторые отрицательные (I don’t have to ... и т.д.):

ask do drive get up go make make pay show

  1. I’m not working tomorrow, so I early.
  2. Steve didn’t know how to use the computer, so I him.
  3. Excuse me a moment - I a phone call. I won’t be long.
  4. I’m not so busy. I have a few things to do, but I them now.
  5. I couldn’t find the street I wanted. I somebody for directions.
  6. The car park is free. You to park your car there.
  7. A man was injured in the accident, but he to hospital because it wasn’t serious.
  8. Sue has a senior position in the company. She important decisions.
  9. When Patrick starts his new job next month, he 50 miles to work every day.

Key

3. В некоторых из этих предложений использование must ошибочно или неествественно. Исправьте такие предложения.

1. It’s later than I thought. I must go.
2. I must work every day from 8.30 to 5.30.
3. You must come and see us again soon.
4. Tom can’t meet us tomorrow. He must work.
5. I must work late yesterday evening.
6. I must get up early tomorrow. I have lots to do.
7. Julia wears glasses. She must wear glasses since she was very young.

Key

4. Закончите предложения, выбрав mustn’t или don’t/doesn’t have to.

  1. I don’t want anyone to know about our plan. You tell anyone.
  2. Richard wear a suit to work, but he usually does.
  3. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I go to work.
  4. Whatever you do, you touch that switch. It’s very dangerous.
  5. There’s a lift in the building, so we climb the stairs.
  6. You forget what I told you. It’s very important.
  7. Sue get up early, but she usually does.
  8. Don’t make so much noise. We wake the children.
  9. I eat too much. I’m supposed to be on a diet.
  10. You be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.

Key



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