Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Tsiolkovsky - Founder of Austronautics

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, the founder of astronautics, was born in 1857, in the village of Izhevsk, in Ryazansky province. When he was ten he had scarlet fever, and was left permanently deaf. This had a great influence on his life.

Only when Tsiolkovsky reached the age of fifteen he begun to study elementary mathematics. At about this time he first thought of constructing a large balloon with a metallic envelope. Realizing that his knowledge was not enough, he began to study higher mathematics. The result was that he became a mathematics and physics teacher and remained so for nearly forty years.

Tsiolkovsky carried out experiments on steam engines for a time, but then he returned to the theoretical study of the metallic dirigible. In 1887, his first published paper on the dirigible appeared. Mendeleyev was interested in this work and helped Tsiolkovsky. The account of this aeronautical work was submitted to the Academy of Sciences who regarded it favourably and made Tsiolkovsky a grant of 470 roubles.

He had not given up his idea about space travel. A popular report on this subject was first published in 1895. Tsiolkovsky’s idea of a spaceship was based on the use of liquid fuels.

During the next fifteen years Tsiolkovsky worked over other designs for spaceships. They were not meant to be working drawings for the construction of these vessells but as a rough guide to the equipment. Some of them are now standard practice in the guided missile field. He published several articles and books dealing with the mathematical theory of rocket flights and space travel. His calculations were used in modern theory of cosmonautics and practical space flights. They showed that it would be possible to travel out into space in rockets and even to set up manned space stations around the Earth.

Tsiolkovsky’s contribution to science is so great that he is considered to be «Father of Cosmonautics».

Topical Vocabulary

- the founder of astrounatics
основатель астронавтики
to have a great influence on smth.
оказывать большое влияние на что-либо
- to study elementary mathematics
изучать элементарную математику
to construct a large balloon with a metallic envelope
сконструировать большой воздушный шар с металлической оболочкой
higher mathematics
высшая математика
- to carry out experiments on smth.
проводить эксперименты по чему-либо
a steam engine
паровой двигатель
a metallic dirigible
металлический дирижабль
an account of smth.
отчет о чем-либо
to submit to the Academy of Sciences
представить на рассмотрение Академии наук
- to give up one’s idea about space travel
отказаться от идеи космических полетов
a spaceship
космический корабль
the use of liquid fuels
использование жидкого топлива
- to work over smth.
работать над чем-либо
a design for a spaceship
проект космического корабля
a working drawing
рабочий чертеж
a guide to the equipment
рекомендации по оборудованию
to be standard practice in smth.
быть общепринятым в какой-либо области
the guided missile field
область управляемых ракетных полетов
a rocket flight
ракетный полет
theory of cosmonautics
теория космонавтики
to set up manned space stations
установить космические станции с человеком на борту
- contribution to science
вклад в науку
«father of Cosmonautics»
отец космонавтики

Answer the questions:

  1. What kind of education did Tsiolkovsky get and why?
  2. How did he realize that he had to study higher mathematics?
  3. What aeronautical problem was he interested in?
  4. What was Tsiolkovsky’s idea of a spaceship?
  5. What was the contents of Tsiolkovsky’s work during the following fifteen years?
  6. What was the importance of his designs for spaceships?
  7. Why is Tsiolkovsky called «Father of Cosmonautics»?

Translate into English:

  1. Только в 15 лет Циолковский стал изучать элементарную математику.
  2. Ему пришла в голову идея сооружения большого воздушного шара с металлическим покрытием.
  3. Циолковский представил в Академию наук отчет о теории создания металлического дирижабля.
  4. В докладе о космических полетах, опубликованном в 1895 году, Циолковский излагал свою идею космического корабля на жидком топливе.
  5. Циолковский опубликовал ряд работ по математической теории ракетных полетов.
  6. Вычисления, сделанные Циолковским, используются в теории космонавтики и практике управляемых космических полетов.
  7. Циолковского называют «отцом космонавтики» благодаря вкладу, который он внес в теорию и практику космических полетов.