Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Science and Technology
In recent years, scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.
Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.
Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.
Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90% of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.
The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.
In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.
Answer the questions:
- What role has scientific and technological development played in man’s life?
- What proves that science and technology are closely related today?
- What does the term «technology» refer to?
- What does the term «industrial technology» mean?
- How is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?
- What facts prove that the scientific revolution of the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together?
- What was the first true modern technological research?
- How can the history of humankind be described?
Translate into English:
- За последние годы наши взгляды на жизнь на Земле, на человека как личность, на Вселенную резко изменились.
- Современная техника зависит от достижений в области чистой науки.
- Техника дает науке более точные инструменты исследования.
- Развитие науки делает возможным использование открытий для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей человека и улучшения его жизни.
- На всем протяжении истории человечества люди изобретали инструменты, машины, материалы, технологии и изменяли окружающую среду.
- Техника в более узком смысле означает промышленную технику, создавшую основу современного общества.
- Современная техника началась с паровых машин, развития фабричной системы и массового производства товаров.
- Научная революция, начавшаяся в XVI веке, вызвала появление новых идей, открытий и изобретений.
- Только в XIX веке техника стала действительно основываться на работах ученых.
- Первым действительно научно-техническим исследованием было исследование Фарадея.
- История человеческого общества - это, в некотором смысле, история развития науки и техники.
2. Modern technology depends on advances in pure science.
3. Technology provides science with more accurate instruments for research.
4. Scientific developments create opportunities for satisfying needs and desires of the people and for making their life easier.
5. Throughout human history people invented tools, machines, materials and technologies and altered the environment.
6. Technology in a narrower sense means industrial technology, which created the basis for our modern society.
7. Modern technology began with power-driven machines, growth of the factory system and mass production of goods.
8. The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century, has brought new ideas, discoveries and inventions.
9. It was not until the 19th century that technology began to build on the work of scientists.
10. The first true modern research was Faraday’s research.
11. Human history is, in a sense, the history of science and technological developments.