Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Science and Technology

In recent years, scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.

Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.

Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.

Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90% of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.

The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.

In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.

Topical Vocabulary

science and technology
наука и техника
техника, технология
- scientific and technological developments
достижения науки и техники
to drastically change life
резко изменить жизнь
a view of smb., smth.
взгляд на кого-либо, что-либо
the Universe
- to be closely related
быть тесно связанным
nuclear power
атомная энергия
a space flight
космический полет
application of scientific knowledge and principles
применение научных знаний и принципов
an advance in pure science
прогресс в чистой науке
to create new opportunities for smth.
создать новые возможности для чего-либо
an instrument for investigation and research
инструмент исследований
- to satisfy needs and desires
для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей
to alter the environment
изменить окружающую среду
to improve one’s life
улучшить чью-либо жизнь
throughout human history
на всем протяжении истории человечества
to invent tools, machines, materials and techniques
изобретать инструменты, машины, материалы, технологии
to make one’s life easier
облегчить чью-либо жизнь
- to look at smth. in a much narrower sense
посмотреть на что-либо в значительно более узком смысле
industrial technology
промышленная технология
development of power-driven machines
развитие паровых машин
growth of the factory system
рост фабричной системы
mass production of goods
массовое производство товаров
to create the basis for smth.
создать основу для чего-либо
an age of science and technology
век науки и техники
according to one estimate
по одной оценке
increased scientific activity
возросшая научная активность, деятельность
an invention
- the scientific revolution
научная революция
to make a revolutionary discovery in smth.
сделать революционное открытие в какой-либо области
to patent smth.
запатентовать изобретение
to be based on science
основываться на науке
an inventor
to build on the work of scientists
основываться на научных работах
early experiments
зд.: более ранние эксперименты
electrical lighting
электрическое освещение
to carry on an investigation
проводить исследование
an electric bulb
электрическая лампочка
a research laboratory
исследовательская лаборатория
modern technological research
современное научно-техническое исследование

Answer the questions:

  1. What role has scientific and technological development played in man’s life?
  2. What proves that science and technology are closely related today?
  3. What does the term «technology» refer to?
  4. What does the term «industrial technology» mean?
  5. How is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?
  6. What facts prove that the scientific revolution of the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together?
  7. What was the first true modern technological research?
  8. How can the history of humankind be described?

Translate into English:

  1. За последние годы наши взгляды на жизнь на Земле, на человека как личность, на Вселенную резко изменились.
  2. Современная техника зависит от достижений в области чистой науки.
  3. Техника дает науке более точные инструменты исследования.
  4. Развитие науки делает возможным использование открытий для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей человека и улучшения его жизни.
  5. На всем протяжении истории человечества люди изобретали инструменты, машины, материалы, технологии и изменяли окружающую среду.
  6. Техника в более узком смысле означает промышленную технику, создавшую основу современного общества.
  7. Современная техника началась с паровых машин, развития фабричной системы и массового производства товаров.
  8. Научная революция, начавшаяся в XVI веке, вызвала появление новых идей, открытий и изобретений.
  9. Только в XIX веке техника стала действительно основываться на работах ученых.
  10. Первым действительно научно-техническим исследованием было исследование Фарадея.
  11. История человеческого общества - это, в некотором смысле, история развития науки и техники.