Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
The Olympic Games
In 776 ВС the first Olympic were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honour the Greek chief God, Zeus. The Greeks emphasized physical fitness and strength in their education of youth. Therefore contests in running, jumping, discus and javelin throwing, boxing and horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were greatly honoured by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems sung about their deeds. Originally these were held as games of friendship, and any wars in progress were halted to allow the games take place.
The Greeks attached so much importance to these games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called «Olympiads».
In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later.
Renewal of the Games came in 1896, when the first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens due to the French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin. The first Olympiad was held in Athens and followed the pattern set by the ancient Olympic Games. Some events, like marathon race, have been added, and the inclusion of women, and also the series of winter sports. Otherwise, the framework elaborated for the first Games, has stood the test of time. The modern Games have maintained the original ideal of amateurism.
In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement, formed by the representatives of participant countries. The IOC makes the ultimate decision as to the program of the Games, the number of participants and as to where the Games of the next Olympiad are to be held. The Games are allocated to a city, not to a country. Over 150 countries are represented in the IOC at present.
Much importance is attached to opening ceremony. At the opening of the Games the International Olympic Committee appears as host. The national anthem of the host country is played, and all the participants march past the Lodge of Honour. The Head of the host country declares the Games open, then the Olympic flag is raised and the Olympic hymn is sung. Then the Olympic flame is lit that will burn till the end of the Games. The Olympic torch has been carried from Olympia by torch bearers, one for each kilometre, about 340 in all.
The Olympic flag has five coloured interlaced rings, representing the five parts of the world, on a white background. The motto of the Olympic Games is «Citius, Altius, Fortius» (Faster, Higher, Stronger).
Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then, Soviet sportsmen and sportswomen have collected a great lot of gold, silver and bronze medals, not to mention the numerous Olympic and world records they have broken. In 1980 Moscow hosted the 22nd Olympic Games.
The importance of the Olympic Games was well expressed by Coubertin: «The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not win, but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle».
Answer the questions:
- What is the history of the ancient Olympic Games?
- How and when were the Olympic Games renewed?
- What was the first modern Olympiad characterized by?
- What are the functions of the International Olympic Committee?
- How were the winter Games introduced?
- What kind of ceremony is the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games?
- What part does Russia play in the Olympic Games?
- What did Pierre de Coubertin say about the importance of the Olympic Games?
Translate into English:
- Древние греки придавали большое значение физической форме.
- Древние Олимпийские игры проводились в честь Зевса.
- Древние Олимпийские игры включали соревнования по метанию диска и копья и многие другие виды соревнований.
- Когда Олимпийские игры были возобновлены, за модель были взяты древние Олимпиады.
- Дух любительского спорта древних Олимпиад прошел проверку временем.
- Был основан МОК, центральный орган, определяющий политику Олимпийского движения.
- Когда МОК принимает окончательное решение о месте проведения Олимпийских игр, он определяет город, а не страну-хозяйку Олимпиады.
- После вступления России в олимпийское движение российские спортсмены собрали огромное количество медалей и установили огромное количество рекордов.
2. The ancient Olympic Games were held in honour of Zeus.
3. The ancient Olympic Games included competitions in discus and javelin-throwing and many other kinds of competitions.
4. When the Olympic Games were renewed, the ancient Olympic Games set the pattern for them.
5. The spirit of amateurism of the ancient Olympic Games has stood the test of time.
6. The International Olympic Committee was set up, the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement.
7. When the International Olympic Committee makes the ultimate decision as to where the Olympic Games are to be held, it determines a city, not the country - host of the Olympic Games.
8. After joining the Olympic Movement by Russia, Russian sportsmen have collected a great lot of medals and have broken numerous records.