Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
The Kremlin

The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is surrounded by a high wall of 2 1/2 kilometres long, built by the Russian builders by order of Ivan III (1462-1505), and supervised by the Italian architects. The twenty towers on the Kremlin wall, which give it a unique aspect, were built for decoration and have no military significance. They were constructed in the seventeenth century when Moscow had ceased to be a fortress. Among the ancient buildings in the Kremlin are the churches and a tall bell tower built in 1600 by Russian architects under Boris Godunov and known as the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great. The largest cathedral, the Uspenski (Assumption), was built in 1475-1479 by Aristotle Fiorovante. There are some very fine old frescoes, some of which were restored in the XX-th century. It was there that the Russian tsars and emperors were crowned.

The Archangel Cathedral was built in 1505 by the Italian architect, Aleviso Novy. The tombs of the Moscow princes and tsars are here, among them the graves of Ivan the Terrible, of his son Ivan, and of his second son, Tsar Fyodor. The Blagoveshchensky (Annunciation) Cathedral was built in 1484 by architects from Pskov. It is noted for the unusual oil paintings done in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries by Andrei Rublev and his pupils, the greatest artists of the time.

Facing the same square is a very beautiful building known as Granovitaya Palata (Palace) which was built in the end of the 15th century by Marco Ruffo and Pietro Solari. In this palace the Moscow tsars held magnificent receptions in honour of foreign ambassadors. The Granovitaya Palace is connected with the enormous Grand Kremlin Palace.

Among other historical monuments in the Kremlin are the Tsar Cannon (sixteenth century) and the Tsar Bell (eighteenth century), both of enormous size and made by Russian masters. In a large wing of the Palace is the Armoury and a museum of applied art where imperial collections of utensils, furniture, weapon and garments of eastern and western workmanship are on display.

In the north-eastern section of the Kremlin is a beautiful building of classic design built by the most famous Russian architect of the eighteenth century, M. Kazakov. In the square opposite this building is the former Arsenal, along the facade of which are numerous cannons captured by the Russian Army from Napoleon in 1812-1814.

Topical Vocabulary

- to be surrounded by smth.
быть окруженным чем-либо
by order of
по приказу (кого-либо)
to be supervised by smb.
под руководством кого-либо
an architect
to be built for decoration
быть построенным для украшения
to have no military significance
не иметь военного значения
to be constructed
быть построенным
to cease to be a fortress
перестать быть крепостью
an ancient building
древнее здание
a church
a bell tower
Ivan the Great
Иван Великий
a cathedral
a fresco
to be restored
быть отреставрированным
a tsar
an emperor
to be crowned
быть коронованным
- the tombs of princes and tsars
гробницы князей и царей
a grave
an oil painting
картина маслом
the greatest artist of the time
величайший художник своего времени
to face the square
выходить на площадь
to hold receptions in honour of smb.
проводить приемы в честь кого-либо
a foreign ambassador
иностранный посол
the Grand Kremlin Palace
Большой Кремлевский дворец
- the Tsar Cannon
the Tsar Bell
of enormous size
огромных размеров
a wing
the Armoury
Оружейная палата
a museum of applied art
Музей прикладного искусства
an imperial collection
императорская коллекция
предметы быта
a weapon
a garment
предмет одежды
to be on display
выставляться, экспонироваться
- a building of classic design
здание в классическом стиле
a cannon
to be captured by... from ...
быть захваченным кем-либо у кого-либо

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the history of the Kremlin towers?
  2. When and what for were the Kremlin towers built?
  3. What are the Kremlin cathedrals famous for?
  4. What are the other famous buildings facing the same square?
  5. What is there in the northern section of the Kremlin?

Translate into English:

  1. Кремль окружен стеной с 20 башнями, построенными для украшения и не имеющими военного значения.
  2. Древние постройки Кремля включают церкви, колокольню Ивана Великого и относятся к 15-18 векам (date back to).
  3. Церкви Соборной площади известны своими фресками и гробницами царей.
  4. В Успенском соборе короновали царей и императоров.
  5. В Грановитой палате давали приемы в честь иностранных послов.
  6. В Оружейной палате хранятся мебель, одежда и оружие из царских коллекций.