Тема / Топик по английскому языку:

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre.

Moscow is the largest metropolitan area in Russia with the population of about 10 million people, one of the largest cities in the world. The city is situated on low hills on the banks of the Moskva River. The original settlement was founded where the Kremlin now stands. Because of its central location in the heart of European Russia, Moscow became a focal point for important trade routes.

Moscow was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. It is the official date of the foundation of Moscow, though the settlement had been there for some time before. It was fortified and became a market town in the late 12th century. The town was almost totally destroyed in 1237 and 1293 during the Tatar invasion. In the early 14th century Moscow became the political and religious centre of the north-eastern part of Russia. It was again captured by the Tatars in 1382. By the end of the 15th century, Moscow extended its rule over most of central and northern Russia. Its rulers continued to build fortifications around it.

The transfer of the capital by Peter the Great to St. Petersburg in 1712 brought a period of decline to Moscow. In 1812 came the Napoleon’s conquest and the city was destroyed by fire. The city was rebuilt within a short period. In the 19th century Moscow became a centre for industry and commerce, as well as a leading cultural, scientific and political centre.

Moscow is the seat of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Moscow is Russia’s largest industrial city. Nearly 30 percent of the city’s workforce is employed in industry and industrial research. Some of Russia’s largest plants are located in or around Moscow. Metallurgy, metal processing and engineering are the largest industrial sectors. Other large sectors are textiles, clothing and footwear, chemical and petrochemical industries, electronic instruments and automation equipment.

Moscow, apart from its political, administrative and economic functions as the capital of Russia, is its leading cultural centre. It is the seat of the Academy of Sciences. Russia’s largest University, over 80 scientific research institutions, technical colleges and academies of music and art are situated here. The city also contains the Russian State Library, with one of the largest and richest archives in the world, over 80 museums, the famous Bolshoi and Maly Theatres, opera and ballet. It is one of the world’s largest publishing centres. Moscow is Russia’s mam tourist attraction.

Topical Vocabulary

- a political, economic, commercial and cultural centre
политический, экономический, торговый и культурный центр
- a metropolitan area
район, где расположен город
a settlement
to be founded
быть основанным
central location
центральное положение
to become a focal point
стать фокусом, пересечением
a trade route
торговый путь
- to be mentioned in the chronicles
упоминаться в хрониках
the official date of foundation
официальная дата основания
to be fortified
быть укрепленным
to become a market town
стать торговым городом
to be destroyed
быть разрушенным
the Tatar invasion
татарское нашествие
to be captured by the Tatars
быть захваченным татарами
to extend its rule over smth.
распространить свою власть на (что-либо)
to build fortifications
строить укрепления
- the transfer of the capital to
перенести столицу в (какой-либо город)
a period of decline
период упадка
the Napoleon’s conquest
нашествие Наполеона
a centre for industry and commerce
центр промышленности и торговли
- the seat of the government
местонахождение правительства
- workforce
рабочая сила
to be employed in smth.
быть занятым в чем-либо
metal processing
chemical and petrochemical industries
химическая и нефтехимическая промышленность
electronic instruments
электронные станки
automation equipment
- the Academy of Sciences
Академия наук
a scientific research institution
научно-исследовательский институт
an archives
a publishing centre
центр издательского дела
a tourist attraction
предмет интереса туристов

Answer the questions:

  1. What part does Moscow play in the life of Russia?
  2. What was Moscow’s history before the 18th century?
  3. What happened to the city in the 19th century?
  4. How can you prove that Moscow is the largest industrial city in the country?
  5. How can you characterize the city’s role as a cultural centre?

Translate into English:

  1. Москва - крупнейший город в России; в Москве пересекаются многие важные торговые пути.
  2. Официальная дата основания Москвы - это дата первого упоминания Москвы в летописях.
  3. Сначала Москва была поселком; позже город был укреплен и стал торговым центром.
  4. Из-за центрального положения Москвы в европейской части России город стал торговым, политическим и религиозным центром России.
  5. Москва была несколько раз захвачена и разрушена: татарами в 13 и 14 веках, французами в 19 веке.
  6. Перенос столицы в Санкт-Петербург привел Москву к упадку.
  7. Москва - промышленный и торговый центр, местонахождение правительства Российской Федерации.
  8. Рабочая сила столицы занята в металлургии, металлообработке, машиностроении, химической и нефтехимической промышленности и других отраслях.
  9. В Москве находятся около 80 НИИ, Академия наук, Российская государственная библиотека с крупнейшим архивом.
  10. Москва - центр издательского дела.