Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
The Russian Federation

In area, the Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from the Arctic Ocean in the North to the Black Sea and the Caucasus, the Altai, and the Sayan mountains, and the Amur and the Ussuri rivers in the South. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the West, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China along the southern border. The federation comprises 21 republics.

The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russian Federation is located on two plains, Great Russian Plain and West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, separating Europe from Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. Russia’s most important rivers are the Volga, Europe’s biggest river, flowing into the Caspian Sea, the main Siberian rivers (the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena), and the Amur in the Far East, flowing into the Pacific Ocean. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million. The world’s deepest lake - Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 metres, is situated in Russia, too.

The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental in the central part of the country and subtropical in the south.

The current population of Russia is about 50 million people; 82% of the population are Russians.

Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic. Its vast mineral resources include oil and natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, gold and other non-ferrous metals. Russia has the world’s largest oil and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the republic’s mineral wealth is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.

Approximately 10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of the region’s grain, meat, milk and other dairy products. The largest granaries are located in the North Caucasus and the Volga and the Amur regions.

The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people.

Russia is a constitutional republic, with President as Head of State. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma.

Topical Vocabulary

- total area
общая площадь
to occupy
to stretch from ... to ...
протянуться от... до...
to be bordered by
граничить с (чем-либо)
to comprise smth.
включать что-либо
- to vary from smth. to smth
варьировать от чего-либо до чего-либо
a barren desert
бесплодная пустыня
a high peaked mountain
горная вершина
a deep valley
глубокая долина
to be located
быть расположенным
a plain
a mountain chain
горная цепь
to separate Europe from Asia
отделять Европу от Азии
to flow into
впадать (во что-либо)
- climate
- the current population
население на данный период
- a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic
республика с высокоразвитой промышленностью и сельским хозяйством
vast mineral resources
богатые запасы полезных ископаемых
to include oil and natural gas
включать нефть и природный газ
a non-ferrous metal
цветной металл
mineral wealth
запасы полезных ископаемых
- to be engaged in agriculture
быть занятым в сельском хозяйстве
to produce grain
производить зерно
a dairy product
молочный продукт
a granary
- a constitutional republic
конституционная республика
legislative power
законодательная власть
to be vested in
осуществляться (чем-либо)

Answer the questions:

  1. What territory does Russia occupy?
  2. What countries is it bordered by?
  3. What are the major plains, mountain chains and rivers of Russia?
  4. How can you characterize Russia’s climate?
  5. What mineral resources does Russia possess?
  6. What industries are developed in Russia?
  7. What is the political system of Russia?

Translate into English:

  1. Россия - самая большая страна в мире с общей площадью около 17 миллионов кв. км, расположена в Восточной Европе и северной части Азии.
  2. Россия протянулась от Балтийского моря до Тихого Океана и от Северного Ледовитого Океана до Черного Моря.
  3. С ней граничат Норвегия, Финляндия, Монголия, Китай и бывшие (former) республики СССР.
  4. Волга, крупнейшая река России, впадает в Каспийское Море.
  5. Среди крупнейших горных цепей России - Урал, отделяющий Европу от Азии.
  6. Россия - страна с высокоразвитой промышленностью и сельским хозяйством, с богатейшими запасами полезных ископаемых.
  7. Три четверти запасов полезных ископаемых республики сконцентрировано в Сибири, в том числе нефть, природный газ, уголь, золото и цветные металлы.
  8. Население, занятое в сельском хозяйстве, производит зерно, мясо и молочные продукты.
  9. Россия - президентская республика; законодательная власть в стране принадлежит Федеральному собранию.