Тема / Топик по английскому языку:

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic, political and educational centre. It is one of Russia’s major cities with the population of about 9 million people. Its total area is about 900 thousand square kilometres.

The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky and was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontier settlement. By the 15th century Moscow had grown into a wealthy city.

In the 16th century, under Ivan the Terrible, Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. In the 18th century Peter the Great transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon’s attack in 1812. During the war of 1812 three quarters of the city were destroyed by fire, but by the middle of the 19th century Moscow was completely rebuilt.

The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the Russian Federation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices are located here, too.

Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering, chemical and light industries.

Moscow is known for its many historical buildings, museums and art galleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Andrey Rublyov Museum of Early Russian Art and many others.

Moscow is a city of science and learning. There are over 80 higher education institutions in the city, including a number of universities.

Topical Vocabulary

- an administrative, economic, political and educational centre
административный, экономический, политический центр, центр образования
a major city
крупный город
total area
общая площадь
- to be founded by smb.
быть основанным кем-либо
a prince
to be first mentioned in the chronicles
быть впервые упомянутым в летописях
to grow into a wealthy city
превратиться в процветающий город
- under Ivan the Terrible
при Иване Грозном
to transfer the capital to
перенести столицу в (какой-либо город)
to remain the heart of Russia
остаться сердцем России
to become the main target of Napoleon’s attack
стать главной целью нападения Наполеона
to be destroyed by fire
быть разрушенным пожаром
to be completely rebuilt
быть полностью отстроенным
- the present-day Moscow
современная Москва
the seat of the government
местонахождение правительства
a government office
правительственное учреждение
to be located
быть расположенным
- the leading industry
ведущая отрасль промышленности
chemical industry
химическая промышленность
light industry
легкая промышленность
- unique
- a city of science and learning
город науки и образования
a higher education institution

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the role of Moscow in Russia?
  2. When was Moscow founded?
  3. When did it become the capital?
  4. What part does the present-day Moscow play in the life of Russia.

Translate into English:

  1. Москва - административный, экономический, политический центр России и один из крупнейших городов страны.
  2. Население Москвы - около 12,5 миллионов человек, общая площадь - 900 000 кв. километров.
  3. Москва была основана Юрием Долгоруким и впервые упоминалась в летописях в 1147 году.
  4. Из пограничного поселка Москва превратилась в процветающий город, столицу Московии.
  5. Москва осталась центром России и стала основной целью Наполеона при нападении на Россию.
  6. Москва - крупный промышленный город, город науки и образования.