Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
UK Political System

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is constitutional monarchy. This means that Great Britain is governed by the Parliament and the Queen is Head of State.

The legislative power in the country is exercised by the Houses of Parliament. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords is composed of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people. They are elected from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The House of Commons is the real governing body of the United Kingdom.

The executive power is exercised by Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The government is usually formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. Prime Minister is the majority party leader and is appointed by the Queen. Prime Minister chooses a team of ministers; twenty of the ministers are in the Cabinet.

The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and the Shadow Cabinet. The two leading parties in Great Britain are the Conservative Party (the Tories) and the Labour Party.

The judiciary branch of the government determines common law and is independent of both the legislative and the executive branches.

There is no written constitution in Great Britain, only precedents and traditions.

Topical Vocabulary

- a constitutional monarchy
конституционная монархия
the Queen
Head of State
глава государства
- the legislative power
законодательная власть
to be exercised by
осуществляться (чем-либо)
the Houses of Parliament
the House of Lords
палата лордов
the House of Commons
палата общин
to be composed of smb.
состоять из кого-либо
hereditary and life peers
наследственные и пожизненные лорды, пэры
a peeress
a member of
член (чего-либо)
to be elected by the people
избираться народом
to be elected from a constituence
избираться от избирательного округа
the real governing body
реальный правящий орган
- the executive power
исполнительная власть
Prime Minister
the Cabinet
to be formed by smth.
образовываться, формироваться чем-либо
to be supported by the majority
поддерживаться большинством
the majority party leader
лидер партии большинства
to be appointed by
назначаться (кем-либо)
to choose a team of ministers
создавать команду министров
- the official opposition
официальная оппозиция
the Shadow Cabinet
теневой кабинет
- the judiciary branch of the government
судебная власть
to determine common law
определять гражданское право
to be independent of smth.
не зависеть от чего-либо
- a written constitution
«письменная» конституция
a precedent

Answer the questions:

  1. What does the term «constitutional monarchy» mean?
  2. What body (орган) exercises the legislative power in the country?
  3. How are the chambers of the Parliament composed?
  4. What body exercises the executive power?
  5. How is the executive branch of the government formed?
  6. What is the official opposition?
  7. What does the judiciary branch of the government do?
  8. Is there a written Constitution in Great Britain?

Translate into English:

  1. Термин «конституционная монархия» означает, что Великобритания управляется парламентом, а главой государства является королева.
  2. Законодательная власть принадлежит парламенту, состоящему из двух палат.
  3. Члены палаты общин, реального органа управления страной, избираются народом.
  4. Премьер-министр назначается королевой и сам назначает кабинет.
  5. Исполнительная власть в стране осуществляется премьер-министром и его кабинетом.
  6. Партия, имеющая большинство в палате общин, формирует правительство.
  7. Члены палаты общин избираются от округов в Англии, Шотландии, Уэльсе и Северной Ирландии.
  8. Официальная оппозиция формирует свой теневой кабинет.
  9. Судебная власть определяет гражданское право.
  10. В Англии вместо письменной конституции существуют прецеденты и традиции.