Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
US Political System

The USA is a presidential republic.

The legislative power of the US is vested in the Congress of the USA. The Congress was created by Article I of the Constitution, adopted in 1787. It consists of two chambers - the Senate and the House of Representatives.

The Senate is made up of 100 members (2 from each state), elected for a term of 6 years. One third of the Senate is elected every 2 years. To be elected a Senator, a person must be at least 30 years old and have been the citizen of the USA for at least 9 years.

The House of Representatives comprises representatives from each state, elected for a two-year term. The number of representatives from each state depends on its population, but every state is represented. To be elected a representative, a person must be at least 25 years of age and have been a citizen of the USA for at least 7 years.

The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice-President of the USA. The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the Speaker, is elected by the house. The work of preparing and considering laws is done by the committees of both Houses. There are 15 standing committees in the Senate and 19 in the House of Representatives.

The Congress assembles at least once a year.

The executive branch of the government consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Cabinet. The President’s term of office is four years, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term. The President is the head of the executive branch of the government; he appoints the members of the Cabinet. The Cabinet advises the President on many matters and is composed of the heads of ten executive departments: Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of Defence and others.

The judicial branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court which settles disputes between the states. The Supreme Court may veto any law passed by the Congress if it contradicts the Constitution of the USA.

The United States is a federal Union, and the President is the head of the Federal government which deals with international problems and national matters. But every state has its own constitution and the state government headed by the Governor and managing their local affairs. Their laws and decisions must not contradict the Constitution of the USA.

The US national flag - Stars and Stripes - is red, white and blue. Thirteen stripes represent the original 13 states of the US; the 50 stars represent the current number of states.

Topical Vocabulary

- a presidential republic
президентская республика
- the legislative power
законодательная власть
to be vested in the Congress of the USA
осуществляться конгрессом США
to be created by the Constitution
быть созданным в соответствии с конституцией
to adopt (a constitution)
принять (конституцию)
a chamber
the Senate
the House of Representatives
палата представителей
to be made up of
состоять из (кого-либо)
to be elected for a term of
быть избранным на определенный срок
to be the citizen of the USA for
быть гражданином США в течение (определенного срока)
to comprise representatives from smth.
объединить представителей чего-либо
the presiding officer of
председатель (чего-либо)
the Vice-President
to prepare and consider a law
подготовить и рассмотреть закон
a standing committee
постоянный комитет
to assemble
the executive branch of the government
высшая исполнительная власть
a term of office
срок полномочий
the head of smth.
глава чего-либо
to appoint a member of the Cabinet
назначить членом кабинета
to advise the President on a matter
давать рекомендации президенту по вопросу
to be composed of smb.
состоять из кого-либо
Secretary of State
государственный секретарь
Secretary of Treasury
министр финансов
Secretary of Defence
министр обороны
- the judicial branch of the government
высшая судебная власть
the Supreme Court
Верховный суд
to settle a dispute between the states
решать спор между штатами
to veto a law
наложить вето на закон
to be passed by the Congress
вноситься конгрессом
to contradict the Constitution
противоречить конституции
- a federal Union
the Federal government
федеральное правительство
to deal with international problems and national matters
заниматься международными и внутренними проблемами
the state government
правительство штата
to manage local affairs
заниматься местными вопросами
a decision
- the US national flag
национальный флаг США
the current number of states
текущее число штатов

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the legislative power in the USA vested in?
  2. What kind of person may be elected a senator?
  3. How is a representative elected?
  4. Who are the presiding officers of the Senate ad the House of Representatives?
  5. How does the executive branch of the government function?
  6. What is the judicial branch of the government headed by?
  7. What are the functions of state governments?
  8. What does the US national flag represent?

Translate into English:

  1. В США законодательная власть осуществляется конгрессом, состоящим из сената и палаты представителей.
  2. Палата представителей включает представителей от каждого штата, избираемых сроком на два года.
  3. Вице-президент - председатель сената, а выборный спикер - председатель палаты представителей.
  4. Высший исполнительный орган состоит из президента, вице-президента и кабинета.
  5. Президент, глава высшей исполнительной власти, избирается на 4 года и назначает членов кабинета.
  6. Кабинет состоит из руководителей 10 исполнительных департаментов и дает рекомендации президенту по многим вопросам.
  7. Верховный суд решает спорные вопросы между штатами и может наложить вето на закон, если он противоречит конституции.
  8. Правительство штата во главе с губернатором занимается местными вопросами.