Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
US Government

The USA is a presidential republic.

The legislative branch of the US Government, or the Congress, represents all of the American states. It consists of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state has two senators, who are elected every 6 years. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for 9 years, and live in the state she or he will represent. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state.

The job of the Congress is to make laws. The President can veto a bill. The Congress can pass the law anyway if it gets a two-thirds majority vote. The Congress can also declare war. The House of Representatives can also impeach the President. This means that the House can charge the President with a crime. In this case, the Senate will put the President on trial. The Senate votes to approve the justices that the President appoints to the Supreme Court.

The executive branch of the government puts the country’s laws into effect. The President of the United States is a member of the executive branch. The President must be at least 35 years old, and be a natural citizen of the USA. In addition, he must have lived in the US for at least 14 years, and be a civilian. The President is elected every four years and cannot serve more that two terms. The Vice-President of the USA is president of the Senate. When the President receives a bill from the Congress, he must sign it, and then the bill becomes a law. However, if he disagrees with the law, he can veto it. The President can also ask the Congress to declare war. He also appoints the justices to the Supreme Court. He must do his job according to the Constitution, or he may be impeached.

The judicial branch of the government is the system of courts in the United States. Its job is to enforce laws. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. It consists of 9 justices: one Chief Justice and 8 associate justices. The President appoints the justices, but the Senate must approve them. The justices are appointed for life. The Supreme Court makes sure that people obey the laws. The Supreme Court can also decide if a law is constitutional, that is, if it is in agreement with the Constitution. The judicial branch works together with the legislative and executive branches to protect the Constitution and the rights of people.

Topical Vocabulary

- a presidential republic
президентская республика
- the legislative branch of the government
законодательная власть
the Congress
to represent smb., smth.
представлять кого-либо, чего-либо
the House of Representatives
палата представителей
the Senate
a senator
to be elected
быть избранным
to be a citizen of
быть гражданином (какой-либо страны)
a representative
- to make a law
создавать закон
to veto a bill
наложить вето на законопроект
to pass the law
провести закон
to get a two-thirds majority vote
получить большинство в две трети голосов
to declare war
объявить войну
to impeach the President
подвергнуть президента импичменту
to charge the President with a crime
обвинить президента в совершении преступления
to put the President on trial
судить президента
to vote
to approve the justices
утвердить судей
to appoint a justice to the Supreme Court
назначить судью Верховного суда
- the executive branch of the government
исполнительная власть
to put the country’s laws into effect
приводить в исполнение законы страны
to be a natural citizen of the USA
родиться в США и быть гражданином США
to be a civilian
быть штатским
to serve
to serve a term
срок службы
the Vice-President
to sign smth.
подписать что-либо
- the judicial branch of the government
судебная власть
a system of courts
система судов
to enforce laws
проводить законы в жизнь
a justice
Chief Justice
верховный судья
an associate justice
судья (помощник судьи)
to be appointed for life
назначаться пожизненно
to obey a law
подчиниться закону
to protect the Constitution and the rights of people
защищать конституцию и права граждан

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the legislative branch of the US government?
  2. Who can be elected a senator?
  3. Who can be elected a representative?
  4. What are the jobs of the Congress?
  5. What are the jobs of each chamber?
  6. What does the executive branch do?
  7. Who can be elected the President of the USA?
  8. What is the President’s term of office?
  9. What can and must the President do?
  10. What is the judicial branch and what is its job?
  11. How are the justices of the Supreme Court appointed?

Translate into English:

  1. Законодательная власть США, или конгресс, состоит из палаты представителей и сената.
  2. Конгресс может объявить войну или провести закон, на который президент наложил вето.
  3. Для этого конгресс должен получить большинство в две трети голосов.
  4. Конгресс может также подвергнуть президента импичменту.
  5. Исполнительная власть состоит из президента, вице-президента и кабинета министров.
  6. Исполнительная власть претворяет в жизнь законы.
  7. Президент подписывает законопроект и может наложить на него вето.
  8. Президент может обратиться к конгрессу с просьбой объявить войну, назначает судей в Верховный суд.
  9. Вице-президент является президентом сената.
  10. Судебная власть следит за соблюдением законов и представляет собой систему судов.
  11. Верховный суд может решить, является ли закон конституционным.
  12. Цель правительства - защита конституции и прав человека в США.