Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in the family of a fisherman in the northern coastal village of Denisovka not far from Archangelsk. When he was ten years of age his father began to take him sea fishing. The dangerous life of a fisherman taught him to observe the natural phenomena more closely. During the long winter nights young Lomonosov studied his letters, grammar and arithmetic diligently.

Being the son of a peasant, he was refused admission to the local school. After some years, through concealing his peasant origin, he gained admission to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy and for five years lived a hand-to-mouth existence on three kopecks a day. The noblemen’s sons studying with him made fun of the twenty-year-old giant who, in spite of the jeers and his own poverty, made rapid progress.

After five years came the chance of entering the Academy of Sciences, as there were not enough noble-born students to fill the quota. His ability and diligence attracted the attention of the professors and as one of three best students he was sent abroad. He spent all the time there studying the works of leading European scientists in chemistry, metallurgy, mining and mathematics. On his return to Russia in 1745 he was made a professor and was the first Russian scientist to become a member of the Academy of Sciences.

For versatility Lomonosov has no equal in Russian science. Many of his ideas and discoveries only won recognition in the nineteenth century. He was the first to discover the vegetable origin of coal, for instance, and as a poet and scientist he played a great role in the formation of the Russian literary language, eliminating distortions and unnecessary foreign words. He died in 1765. His living memorial is the Moscow University, which he founded in 1755.

Topical Vocabulary

- to be born
родиться
to observe the natural phenomena
наблюдать явления природы
- to be the son of a peasant
быть сыном крестьянина
to be refused admission to smth.
получить отказ в принятии в (какое-либо учреждение)
to conceal one’s peasant origin
скрыть свое крестьянское происхождение
to gain admission to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy
быть принятым в Славяно-греко-латинскую академию
to live a hand-to-mouth existence
едва сводить концы с концами
noblemen
знать, знатные люди
to make rapid progress
делать быстрые успехи
- to enter the Academy of Sciences
вступить в Академию наук
to fill the quota
зд.: чтобы набрать нужное количество
ability and diligence
способности и усидчивость
to be sent abroad
послать за границу
works in chemistry, metallurgy, mining and mathematics
работы по химии, металлургии, горному делу и математике
- for versatility
зд.: по количеству открытий
to have no equal in smth.
не иметь равных в чем-либо
a discovery
открытие
to win recognition
получить признание
the vegetable origin of coal
растительное происхождение угля
to play a great role in smth.
играть большую роль в чем-либо
the formation of the Russian literary language
формирование русского литературного языка
to eliminate distortions
устранить диспропорции
one’s living memorial
«памятник», нечто, что увековечивает память
to found the Moscow University
основать Московский университет

Answer the questions:

  1. What kind of family was Lomonosov born in?
  2. What kind of childhood had he?
  3. How did he gain admission to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy?
  4. What kind of existence did he live during his studies?
  5. Why was he able to enter the Academy of Sciences?
  6. What part did Lomonosov play in science?

Translate into English:

  1. Когда десятилетний Ломоносов стал выходить в море ловить рыбу, он научился наблюдать явления природы.
  2. Ломоносову отказали в приеме в городскую школу.
  3. В течение пяти лет ему пришлось вести нищенское существование.
  4. Несмотря на возраст и бедность, Ломоносов делал быстрые успехи.
  5. Для заполнения вакансий в Академии наук было недостаточно знатных молодых людей, и Ломоносов поступил в Академию.
  6. За старательность и прекрасные способности Ломоносова послали за границу, где он изучал химию, металлургию, горное дело и математику.
  7. Ломоносову нет равных по количеству сделанных им открытий.
  8. Многие его открытия получили признание только в XX веке.
  9. Ломоносов сыграл большую роль в формировании русского литературного языка.

Посмотреть ответы

1. When Lomonosov was ten years old and began sea-fishing, he learned to observe the phenomena of nature.
2. Lomonosov was refused admission to the town school.
3. He had to live a hand-to-mouth existence for 5 years.
4. In spite of his age and poverty, Lomonosov made rapid progress.
5. There were not enough noble-born students to fill the quota at the Academy of Sciences, and Lomonosov entered the Academy.
6. For his diligence and abilities Lomonosov was sent abroad where he studied chemistry, metalluigy, mining and mathematics.
7. For the number of inventions (versatility) Lomonosov has no equal.
8. Many of his discoveries only won recognition in the 20th century.
9. Lomonosov played a great role in the formation of the Russian literary language.

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