Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Pushkin

Pushkin is the most important Russian writer of all time, like Shakespeare in England or Dante in Italy. Pushkin provided the standards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century.

Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799 into an upper-class family. In 1811 he entered a tyceum at Tsarskoye Selo. The education offered at the lyceum shaped Pushkin’s life.

He graduated from the lyceum in 1817 and began to work in the foreign office in St. Petersburg.

In 1820 the foreign office transferred Pushkin to Ekaterinoslav, and later to Odessa for writing anti-tsarist poetry. In 1824, for his letters against the tsar, he was exiled to Mikhailovskoye. In 1824, Tsar Nicholas I allowed Pushkin to return to Moscow.

Pushkin felt in love with Natalya Goncharova, who was 16 then, and in 1830 they got married. His wife was suspected of an affair with Baron Georges d’Antes; this became the subject of gossip. Pushkin challenged d’Antes to a duel. Pushkin was wounded and died two days later.

Pushkin was Russia’s greatest poet. In his w orks he was first influenced by 18th century poets, and then by Lord Byron. Finally he developed his own style, which was realistic but classical in form.

His earliest long poem was the romantic «Ruslan and Lyudmila» (1818-1820). A series of verse tales followed — «The Prisoner of the Caucasus», «The Robber Brothers», «The Fountain of Bakhchisarai», and «The Gypsies». They were inspired by Byron’s poetry.

In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece «Eugene Onegm», a novel in verse. «Eugene Onegin» became the linguistic and literary standard. It is a commentary on the life of the early 19th century Russia. It is noted for brilliant verse.

He also wrote other long poems, including «Bronze Horseman» (1833), the finest collection of lyrics in Russian literature.

Pushkin created also a number of masterpieces in drama and prose. «Little Tragedies» and «The Stone Guest» are among the best works in the world history of drama. Pushkin’s love to Russia’s past resulted in his historical drama, «Boris Godunov» (1825). «Tales of the Late I. P. Belkin», «Dubrovsky», «The Captain’s Daughter» are the most important of his prose works. Pushkin’s use of Russian influenced the language of great Russian writers Turgenev, Goncharov, Tolstoy.

Pushkin’s early death shocked the country. Pushkin, called by many «the sun of Russian literature», belongs among the foremost poets and writers of the world.

Topical Vocabulary

- to provide the standards for smb., smth.
стать образцом для кого-либо, чего-либо
- to be born into an upper-class family
родиться в аристократической семье
to enter a lyceum
поступить в лицей
to offer education
давать образование
to shape one’s life
оказать влияние на жизнь, сформировать ее
- to work in the foreign office
работать в министерстве иностранных дел
- to write anti-tsarist poetry
писать стихи, направленные против царя
to be exiled to
быть сосланным в (Михайловское)
- to be suspected of smth.
подозреваться в чем-либо
an affair with
роман с кем-либо
to become the subject of gossip
стать предметом сплетен
to challenge smb. to a duel
вызвать кого-либо на дуэль
to be wounded
быть раненым
- to be influenced by smb.
испытать влияние со стороны кого-либо
to develop one’s own style
создать свой собственный стиль
realistic
реалистичный
classical in form
классический по форме
- a verse tale
сказка в стихах
- a masterpiece
шедевр
a novel in verse
роман в стихах
to become the linguistic and literary standard
стать языковым и литературным образцом для подражания
to be noted for brilliant verse
быть известным своим блестящим стихом
the finest collection of lyrics in
лучшая лирика в
to create a number of masterpieces
создать ряд шедевров
drama and prose
драма и проза
historical drama
историческая пьеса
to belong among the foremost poets and writers of the world
принадлежать к лучшим поэтам и писателям

Answer the questions:

  1. What part did Pushkin play in the development of the Russian language and literature?
  2. What part did Pushkin’s education play in his life?
  3. Why was Pushkin transferred to Odessa, and later exiled to Moscow?
  4. Why did Pushkin challenge D’Antes to a duel?
  5. What was Pushkin influenced by in his style?
  6. How can you characterize «Eugene Onegin»?
  7. What long poems did Pushkin write?
  8. What can you say about Pushkin as a dramatist and a prose writer?

Translate into English:

  1. Пушкин принадлежит к самым выдающимся писателям и поэтам России всех времен.
  2. Творчество Пушкина было образцом для подражания более поздних российских писателей.
  3. Образование, полученное Пушкиным в лицее, оказало влияние на его жизнь.
  4. За стихи, направленные против царя, Пушкин был сначала переведен в Екатеринослав, затем в Одессу, а позже сослан в Михайловское.
  5. Поскольку предполагаемый роман Натальи Гончаровой с Дантесом стал предметом сплетен, Пушкин вызвал Дантеса на дуэль.
  6. Ранний стиль Пушкина сформировался под влиянием (under the influence of) романтизма.
  7. Более поздний стиль, который выработал Пушкин, - это реалистический стиль с элементами классики (classical elements).
  8. К шедеврам Пушкина относятся поэмы «Медный всадник», «Руслан и Людмила», роман в стихах «Евгений Онегин», великолепная лирика, исторические драмы.
  9. Стиль прозаических произведений Пушкина послужил основой стиля великих русских романистов 19-20 веков.

Посмотреть ответы

1. Pushkin is one of the most important Russian writers and poets of all times.
2. Pushkin provided the standards for later Russian writers.
3. The education received at the lyceum shaped Pushkin’s life.
4. For writing anti-tsarist poetry, Pushkin was first transferred to Ekaterinoslav, then to Odessa, and later exiled to Mikhailovskoye.
5. As Dantes’ affair with Natalya Goncharova became the subject of gossip, Pushkin challenged Dantes to a duel.
6. Pushkin’s early style was formed under the influence of Romanticism.
7. A later style, developed by Pushkin, was realistic with classical elements.
8. Pushkin’s masterpieces include long poems: «Bronze Horseman», «Ruslan and Lyudmila», a novel in verse «Eugene Onegin», the finest collection of lyrics, historical drama.
9. The style of prose works by Pushkin formed the basis of the style of great Russian novelists of the 19 - 20th century.

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