Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Oliver Cromwell

One of the chief tendencies of the English history is the struggle between the king and the people. This is a struggle to decide which of them is supreme. One of the most important moments in this long struggle came in the seventeenth century.

During this period the political parties as we know them began to form. Charles I was on the throne. He hated the Parliament. He thought that its only function was to vote for his laws. At last people realized that they had to resist him by force. In 1642 the Civil War broke out.

Most rich men and noblemen of the country supported Charles. They were called Royalists. They were well trained and had skilful leaders.

People who supported the Parliament, the Parliamentarians, were Puritans. Puritans wanted a simpler religion. But their courage and religion was not enough to win battles. They needed training and a good leader. It was Oliver Cromwell who became their leader.

Cromwell was a country gentleman. He got his education at a grammar school. He became a member of the Parliament and was famous there as a rough man. He was also known for his strength of character and sincerity. He saw that if the Parliament army wanted to win victories, it must be as well trained as Charles’ army.

Cromwell gathered soldiers in the eastern part of England and trained his men. He wanted them to fight for freedom, Parliament and religion. Then, when they were ready, he led them into battle. Several battles were won by the Parliamentarians. In 1645 at Naseby the king’s army was defeated.

Cromwell was now leader of the whole Parliamentary forces. In 1649 the King gave himself up and was put into prison. Finally he was brought to trial in London for being an enemy to his country. He was found guilty and beheaded.

In the same month a Parliamentary government came to power. Cromwell became the ruler of England, not as King, but as «Protector of the Commonwealth».

Topical Vocabulary

- the chief tendency of smth.
основная тенденция чего-либо
supreme
высший, верховный, главный
- to form
образоваться, сформироваться
to be on the throne
править (о короле или королеве)
to vote for a law
голосовать за закон
to resist smb. by force
оказывать кому-либо организованное сопротивление
the Civil War
гражданская война
to break out
разразиться, начаться (о войне)
- a nobleman
знатный человек, аристократ
to support smb.
поддерживать кого-либо
a Royalist
роялист
to be well trained
быть хорошо подготовленным
to have a skilful leader
иметь хорошего командующего, лидера
- a Parliamentarian
сторонник парламента
a Puritan
пуританин
a simpler religion
более простая религия
to be not enough to win battles
быть недостаточным для того, чтобы выигрывать сражения
to need training
нуждаться в тренировке, подготовке
- a country gentleman
джентльмен из провинции
to get one’s education at
получить образование в (каком-либо учебном заведении)
to become a member of the Parliament
стать членом парламента
to be famous as a rough man
быть известным своей грубостью, жесткостью
to be known for one’s strength of character and sincerity
быть известным силой своего характера и искренностью
to win a victory
одержать победу
- to fight for freedom, Parliament and religion
сражаться за свободу, парламент и религию
to lead smb. into battle
повести кого-либо на битву
to be defeated
быть разгромленным
- to give oneself up
сдаться
to bring smb. to trial for smth.
подвергнуть кого-либо суду за что-либо
to be found guilty
быть признанным виновным
to be beheaded
быть обезглавленным
- to come to power
прийти к власти
the ruler of England
правитель Англии
Protector of the Commonwealth
Лорд-Протектор Содружества

Answer the questions:

  1. What is one of the chief tendencies of the English history?
  2. Why did the Civil War break out?
  3. Who were the Royalists?
  4. What kind of people were the Parlamentarians?
  5. What was Oliver Cromwell famous for?
  6. How did Oliver Cromwell train his men?
  7. How did Oliver Cromwell become Lord Protector of England?

Translate into English:

  1. Одна из основных тенденций английской истории - борьба между королем и народом.
  2. Чарльз I хотел, чтобы парламент голосовал за его законы.
  3. Во время гражданской войны аристократы и богатые люди поддерживали Чарльза.
  4. Роялисты были хорошо обучены; у них были искусные лидеры.
  5. Религии недостаточно, чтобы выигрывать битвы.
  6. Кромвель был известен грубостью, силой характера и искренностью.
  7. Сторонники парламента сражались за свободу, парламент и религию.
  8. Кромвель подготовил своих солдат и повел их в бой.
  9. Силы короля были разгромлены. Король сдался, был предан суду и казнен.
  10. Кромвель стал Лордом-Протектором Содружества.

Посмотреть ответы

1. The struggle between the king and the people is one of the chief tendencies of the English history.
2. Charles I wanted the Parliament to vote for his laws.
3. During the Civil War noblemen and rich men supported Charles.
4. The Royalists were well trained and had skilful leaders.
5. Religion is not enough to win battles.
6. Cromwell was famous as a rough man; he was known for his strength of character and sincerity.
7. The Parliamentarians fought for freedom, Parliament and religion.
8. Cromwell trained his soldiers and led them into battle.
9. The King’s army (forces) was (were) defeated. The King gave himself up, was brought to trial and executed.
10. Cromwell became Lord-Protector of the Commonwealth.

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