Неопределенный артикль а/an и определенный the в английском языке

Урок 72
A

Изучите следующий пример (Джо говорит Карен):

I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch.
The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple was nice.

В первом предложении Джо говорит ‘a sandwich’, ‘an apple’, потому что это первый раз, когда он упоминает о них.

Во втором предложении Джо говорит ‘the sandwich’, ‘the apple’, потому что Карен знает о каком сэндвиче и яблоке идет речь – о тех, которые он ел во время ланча.

Сравните неопределенный артикль a и определенный артикль the в этих примерах:

B

Мы используем the, когда думаем о чем-то конкретном. Сравните a/an и the:

C

Мы используем the, когда из ситуации ясно о ком или чем идет речь (уникальный в данном контексте - правило из обобщающего урока по артиклям). Например, в комнате мы говорим о the light / the floor / the ceiling / the door / the carpet и т.д. :

Таким же образом мы говорим (go to) the bank, the post office:

Мы также говорим (go to) the doctor / the dentist (зубной врач):

Сравните определенный артикль the и неопределенный артикль a:

D

Мы говорим ‘once a week / three times a day / £1.50 a kilo’ и др. :

Упражнения

1. Выберите неопределенный артикль a/an или определенный артикль the.

  1. This morning I bought newspaper and magazine. newspaper is in my bag, but I can’t remember where I put magazine.
  2. I saw accident this morning. car crashed into tree. driver of car wasn’t hurt, but car was badly damaged.
  3. There are two cars parked outside: blue one and grey one. blue one belongs to my neighbours; I don’t know who owner of grey one is.
  4. My friends live in old house in small village. There is beautiful garden behind house. I would like to have garden like that.

Key

2. Выберите a/an или the.

  1. a. This house is very nice. Has it got garden?
    b. It’s a beautiful day. Let’s sit in garden.
    c. I like living in this house, but it’s a pity that garden is so small.
  2. a. Can you recommend good restaurant?
    b. We had dinner in very nice restaurant.
    c. We had dinner in best restaurant in town.
  3. a. She has French name, but in fact she’s English, not French.
    b. What’s name of that man we met yesterday?
    c. We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can’t remember name now.
  4. a. There isn’t airport near where I live. nearest airport is 70 miles away.
    b. Our flight was delayed. We had to wait at airport for three hours.
    c. Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to airport?
  5. a. ‘Are you going away next week?’ ‘No, week after next.’
    b. I’m going away for week in September.
    c. Gary has a part-time job. He works three mornings week.

Key

3. Исправьте предложения, добавив a/an или the.

1.
Would you like apple?
2.
How often do you go to dentist?
3.
Could you close door, please?
4.
I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to do that. It was mistake.
5.
Excuse me, where is bus station, please?
6.
I have problem. Can you help me?
7.
I’m just going to post office. I won’t be long.
8.
There were no chairs, so we sat on floor.
9.
Have you finished with book I lent you?
10.
My sister has just got job in bank in Manchester.
11.
We live in small flat in city centre.
12.
There’s supermarket at end of street I live in.

Key

4. Ответьте на эти вопросы о себе. Если возможно, используйте конструкцию из раздела D (once a week / three times a day и др.).

  1. How often do you go to the cinema?
  2. How much does it cost to hire a car in your country?
  3. How often do you go to the cinema?
  4. How often do you go away on holiday?
  5. What’s the usual speed limit in towns in your country?
  6. How much sleep do you need?
  7. How often do you go out in the evening?
  8. How much television do you watch (on average)?

Key

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