Употребление By и until. By the time ...

Урок 120
A

By (+ момент времени) = к, не позже чем в:


This milk has to be used by 14 August.

B

Мы используем until (или till) = до; (до тех пор) пока (не), чтобы сказать как долго продолжается ситуация:

  • I couldn’t get up this morning.

{

I stayed in bed until half past ten. (до 10:30)
I didn’t get up until half past ten.

C

Вы можете сказать ‘by the time something happens’ – к тому времени, когда что-то произойдет. Изучите эти примеры:

Вы можете сказать ‘by the time something happened’ (для прошедшего времени):

Также by then или by that time = к тому времени:

Упражнения

1. Составьте предложения с by.

  1. We have to be home not later than 5 o’clock.
  2. I have to be at the airport not later than 8.30.
  3. Let me know not later than Saturday whether you can come to the party.
  4. Please make sure that you’re here not later than 2 o’clock.
  5. If we leave now, we should arrive not later than lunchtime.

Key

2. Вставьте by или until.

  1. Steve has gone away. He’ll be away Monday.
  2. Sorry, but I must go. I have to be home 5 o’clock.
  3. I’ve been offered a job. I haven’t decided yet whether to accept it or not. I have to decide Friday.
  4. I think I’ll wait Thursday before making a decision.
  5. It’s too late to go shopping. The shops are open only 5.30. They’ll be closed now.
  6. I’d better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid tomorrow.
  7. Don’t pay the bill today. Wait tomorrow.
  8. Key
  9. A: Have you finished redecorating your house?
    B: Not yet. We hope to finish the end of the week.
  10. A: I’m going out now. I’ll be back at about 10.30. Will you still be here?
    B: I don’t think so. I’ll probably have gone out then.
  11. I’m moving into my new flat next week. I’m staying with a friend then.
  12. I’ve got a lot of work to do. the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.
  13. If you want to take part in the competition, you have to apply 3 April.

Key

3. Закончите эти предложения, используя свои собственные идеи. Используйте by или until.

  1. David is away at the moment. He’ll be away .
  2. David is away at the moment. He’ll be back .
  3. I’m just going out. I won’t be very long. Wait here .
  4. I’m going out to buy a few things. It’s 4.30 now. I won’t be long. I’ll be back .
  5. If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received .
  6. Last night I watched TV .

Key

4. Прочитайте ситуации и закончите предложения, используя By the time ... .

  1. I was invited to a party, but I got there much later than I intended.

    , most of the other guests had left.
  2. I intended to catch a train, but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

    , my train had already left.
  3. I wanted to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished much later than expected.

    it was too late to go shopping.
  4. I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steal a car. I called the police, but it was some time before they arrived.

    , the two men had disappeared.
  5. We climbed a mountain and it took us a very long time to get to the top. There wasn’t much time to enjoy the view.

    we had to come down again.

Key

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