ЕГЭ 2018. Вариант 4

Раздел 1. АУДИРОВАНИЕ

1

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.
  1. Having a car is a must today.
  2. It costs too much to run cars nowadays.
  3. Cars make our lives more comfortable.
  4. The world would be better off without cars.
  5. Cars pollute our environment.
  6. The world would not be able to survive without cars.
  7. Cars are a vital addition to public transport.

Говорящий

Утверждение

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 

2

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

A The customer is worried about getting spare parts for the computer.

B The salesperson says there are no stocks at the Head Office in London.

C The customer has to bring the computer back to the Head Office in the event of a fault.

D The customer is satisfied with other firms’ speedy service.

E The annual charge for the service increases every year.

F The customer asks about the sort of paper for the printer.

G The customer says they’ve had only one printer up to now.

Утверждение

Соответствие диалогу

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

Вы услышите часть интервью с актёром, который сыграл роль капитана Барбосса в фильмах «Пираты Карибского Моря». В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3

Geoffrey Rush believes that the reason why he comes back is
1) the money he gets.
2) the popularity he enjoys.
3) the teamwork.

Ответ: .

4

Geoffrey Rush says that improvisation
1) is not allowed in their work.
2) is what Johnny Depp usually does.
3) usually becomes part of the script.

Ответ: .

5

One of the most predictable pirate clichés is
1) wearing an eye patch.
2) having a pet monkey.
3) using a peg leg to survive.

Ответ: .

6

While talking with Terry Rossio, Geoffrey Rush came up with the idea of
1) hiding money in a peg leg.
2) drinking alcohol out of a peg leg.
3) having a weapon in a peg leg.
Ответ: .

7

Penelope Cruz
1) met her match in the film.
2) made the actors work harder.
3) sharpened the actors’ wits.

Ответ: .

8

Geoffrey Rush is sure that in the fifth film
1) Barbossa’s wish to have more power will increase.
2) Barbossa will lose his power.
3) Barbossa will turn into James Cameron.
Ответ: .

9

In the fifth film Terry Rossio might explore
1) new aspects of the pirate world.
2) situations that are pirate-driven.
3) things that aren’t connected with piracy.

Ответ: .

Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ

10

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Hazardous Waste
2. Invisible Threat
3. Primary Reason
4. Possible Solutions
5. Global Destruction
6. Disastrous Growth
7. Water Shortage
8. Quick Change

A. Acid rain moves easily, affecting locations far beyond those that let out the pollution. As a result, this global pollution issue causes great debates between countries that fight over polluting each other’s environments. The problem is that acid rain, one of the most important environmental problems of all, cannot be seen. Some scientists think that human production is primarily responsible, while others cite natural causes as well.

B. Air pollution has many disastrous effects that need to be curbed. In order to accomplish this, governments, scientists and environmentalists are using or testing a variety of methods aimed at reducing pollution. There are two main types of pollution control. Input controls are usually more effective than output controls. Output controls are also more expensive, making them less desirable to tax payers and polluting industries.

C. Global warming is called the greenhouse effect because the gases that are gathering above the earth make the planet comparable to a greenhouse. By trapping heat, the greenhouse effect is warming the planet and threatening the environment. Current fears stem largely from the fact that global warming is occurring at such a rapid pace. Models are predicting that over the next century the global temperature will rise by several degrees.

D. Individuals often throw out goods without realizing that they could be dangerous for the environment. No matter where people put these materials, there is always a chance that they could find their way into the ground and eventually into our bodies. Special research is necessary to provide data on the effects of every chemical as well as to learn how combinations of these chemicals affect human health.

E. Only a few factors combine to create the problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production. However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. So it’s important to make people realize the disaster CFCs cause in the stratosphere.

F. Unlike some environmental issues, rainforest depletion has fortunately received significant public and media attention. According to some estimates, 50 million acres of rain forest are cut down every year. Every year, Brazil chops down an area of forest the size of the state of Nebraska. In Indonesia, Zaire, Papua-New Guinea, Malaysia, Burma, the Philippines, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, and Venezuela, rain forests that were once great have been lost.

G. The world’s population has been booming for years. The population is now threatening to reach the stage where there are simply too many people for the planet to support. Greater populations pollute and consume more, ruining the environment and creating or intensifying a variety of problems. Also, with the food supply limited, the increase in population will make shortages in many parts of the world even worse.

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
On 25 October 1881, a little boy was born in Malaga, Spain. It was a difficult birth and to help him breathe, cigar smoke was blown into his nose! But despite being the youngest ever smoker, this baby grew up to be one of the 20th century’s greatest painters — Pablo Picasso.
Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent from a very young age. His first word was lapiz (Spanish for pencil) and he learned to draw before he could talk.
He was the only son in the family and very good-looking, A ____________. He hated school and often refused to go unless his doting parents allowed him to take one of his father’s pet pigeons with him!
Apart from pigeons, his great love was art, and when in 1891 his father, who was an amateur artist, got a job as a drawing teacher at a college, Pablo went with him to the college. He often watched his father painting and sometimes was allowed to help. One evening his father was painting a picture of their pigeons B ____________. He returned to find that Pablo had completed the picture, and it was so amazingly beautiful and lifelike that he gave his son his own palette and brushes and never painted again. Pablo was just 13.
From then onwards there was no stopping him. Many people realized that he was a genius but he disappointed those C ____________. He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public with his strange and powerful pictures. He is probably best known for his ‘Cubist’ pictures, D ____________. His paintings of people were often made up of triangles and squares with their features in the wrong place. His work changed our ideas about art E ____________. Guernica, which he painted in 1937, records the bombing of that little Basque town during the Spanish Civil War, and is undoubtedly one of the masterpieces of modern painting.
Picasso died of heart failure during an attack of influenza in 1973. The artist created over 6,000 paintings, drawings and sculptures. Today a ‘Picasso’ costs several million pounds, F ____________.
  1. which used only simple geometric shapes
  2. so he was thoroughly spoilt
  3. which is not surprising
  4. that is why he was very hard-working
  5. when he had to leave the room
  6. who wanted him to become a traditional painter
  7. that is why to millions of people modern art means the work of Picasso
A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
After graduating from medical school, Eugene Alford built a lucrative career as an ear, nose, and throat specialist and a facial plastic surgeon at Methodist Hospital. In the summers, he and his wife Mary, a dentist and former paediatric nurse, would join a church-sponsored medical mission to Honduras, where he operated on the needy in a rural clinic.
At home, Alford treated many prominent Houston residents, but he also waived his fee for less fortunate patients. Carolyn Thomas, for instance, went to see him with a large gauze bandage over a cavity in her face. She had been shot by her boyfriend, who had also killed her mother. The bullet had blown away Thomas’s nose, upper jaw, and right eye. Reconstruction would have cost a million dollars, but Alford, his medical team, and his hospital did it for free.
Whenever Alford needed to relax after a particularly gruelling period of work, he’d drive to his ranch in Bellville and lose himself in farm chores. He didn’t make it out there as often as he would have liked. As a plastic surgeon at Methodist Hospital, he had performed 800 operations over the previous year and was booked solid for months ahead.
So on a chilly Sunday a few days after Christmas, Alford headed out through the pine bush, intending to clear a trail for deer hunting. As he cut through underbrush in the south pasture, Alford brought the tractor to a halt in front of a dead white oak standing in his path. He nudged the trunk with the tractor’s front-end loader, expecting the tree to topple neatly to the ground. Instead the top half of the oak swayed towards him. In seconds, more than a ton of hardwood slammed down on him, crushing his spine.
Pinned to the steering wheel, Alford could barely breathe. He tried to hit the brakes, but his legs failed to respond. When he found he could move his hands, he turned off the ignition, then with great effort pulled his cell phone from his shirt pocket and called his wife on speed dial. ‘Mary,’ he gasped, ‘a tree fell on me. I’m going to die.’ ‘Don’t quit!’ she shouted. ‘We’re coming to get you!’ Alford was still conscious when his neighbours Kevin and Snuffy, alerted by Mary, hauled the tree off him. A rescue helicopter touched down minutes later, and Alford advised the paramedics on which drugs to administer to him. Then he blacked out.
He was flown to the trauma unit at Medical Centre in Houston, then quickly transferred to Methodist. The operation was successful, but the patient was still in danger. After almost two weeks in the ICU, Alford awoke, and his condition improved enough for him to be taken to a rehabilitation unit, where he began physical therapy and learned to use a wheelchair. In February 2008, six weeks after the accident, Alford returned to his 100-year-old home in Houston. At first, he was so weak that he could sit up only when strapped into a wheelchair.
Before the accident, Alford had been a solidly built six-footer and was used to being in charge. Now, entirely dependent on others, he fell into despair. ‘If it weren’t for my wife and kids, I would have killed myself,’ he says. But then the love started pouring in. Alford’s brother maintained a blog to provide updates about Alford’s recovery. Over the next three months, he received 40,000 messages from colleagues, former patients, acquaintances, even strangers. The outpouring raised his spirits. It also gave Mary a new perspective on him. For years, Alford’s schedule of 15-hour days hadn’t left him much time for her and the kids. ‘I’d just about decided you liked work more than us,’ Mary told him one day over lunch. ‘But now I realize you didn’t want to leave the hospital because there were so many folks that needed you. You couldn’t just abandon them.’
The couple refurbished their house with ramps, a wheelchair-accessible bathroom, and an elevator. They bought an extended-cab pickup truck and fitted it with a wheelchair hoist, a swivelling driver’s seat, and hand controls so Alford could drive himself.
But Alford’s goal was to make such adjustments temporary. After a month of physical therapy, he graduated from an electric to a manual wheelchair. The daily workouts built strength in his back and abdominal muscles, improving his ability to hold himself upright. Soon he was able to stand with the aid of a tubular steel frame; seated in his chair, he could now draw his legs toward his chest.
In May, Alford began the next phase of treatment. By putting a paralyzed patient through his paces, therapists hoped to grow new neuromuscular connections. After three months of this routine, Alford’s coordination had improved markedly. He felt ready to pick up a scalpel again, with the hospital’s approval. Alford still goes for four hours of rehab every morning and spends his evenings stretching and riding a motorized stationary bike to keep muscle spasms at bay. But in the hours between, he sees patients or performs surgeries — as many as five a week.
He’s eager to do more complex surgeries and plans to increase his workload. Walking remains uncertain. ‘I always tell him if I had a crystal ball, I’d be a millionaire,’ says Marcie Kern, one of his physical therapists. Still, the doctor considers himself a lucky man.

(Adapted from ‘His Own Medicine: a Doctor’s Story of Healing’ by Michael Haederle)

12

Eugene Alford
1) treated only prominent Houston residents.
2) did some charity work.
3) had fixed fees.
4) often visited his ranch in Bellville.

Ответ: .

13

In paragraph 3 ‘gruelling’ means
1) extremely boring.
2) quite exciting.
3) very tiring.
4) highly uncomfortable.

Ответ: .

14

As a result of the accident, the oak broke Alford’s
1) neck.
2) legs.
3) back.
4) chest.

Ответ: .

15

Before the accident, Alford
1) was in charge of the hospital.
2) liked his work more than his family.
3) worked 15 hours a week.
4) could not spend much time with his wife and children.
Ответ: .

16

To make Alford feel more comfortable
1) the family equipped their house with necessary facilities.
2) his 100-year-old house was redecorated.
3) the family bought a new house.
4) his old pickup truck was fitted with a wheelchair hoist.
Ответ: .

17

After physical therapy and daily workouts
1) Alford didn’t need a wheelchair.
2) Alford’s stamina came back.
3) Alford started to perform simple operations.
4) Alford’s coordination improved markedly.
Ответ: .

18

At present Alford
1) feels sorry for himself.
2) is planning to practise medicine as well as he used to.
3) is going to start walking.
4) wants to become a millionaire.
Ответ: .

Раздел 3. ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Обратите внимание, что по правилам ЕГЭ ответы нужно писать без пробелов и других знаков, например, правильный ответ ‘have done’ нужно будет записать как ‘havedone’, иначе ваш ответ не засчитается.

A Practical Joke

19
Mr. and Mrs. Parker were having a quite day at home. Their 18-year-old daughter was away in Wales with a friend.
STAY
20
Suddenly the phone .
RING
21
A hoarse voice told Mr. Parker that his daughter and that he had to pay a ransom of $2,000.
KIDNAP
22
He was also warned that if he , he would never see his daughter again. The voice then gave him instructions about where and when to hand over the money.
NOT PAY
23
Mr. Parker took the train to Wales. He went to the hotel and gave the briefcase with the money to a woman in a scarf and a raincoat.
ONE
24
At 11 p.m. the same evening, to his great relief, his daughter came back home. She looked than ever and could hardly stop herself from laughing when she handed him his briefcase with $2,000.
HAPPY
25
It turned out that she and her friend to play a practical joke.
DECIDE
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Distance Learning

26
Many people have done research on how to improve the course work of distance learning and also the of how the material is being taught.
EVALUATE
27
One big concern is that people are cheating with distance learning classes. Many professors are now developing ways to keep distance learning courses from being .
MEANING
28
One way to improve them is to change the way they are taught.
CONTINUAL
29
Teachers are beginning to require classwork for the same course that they teach.
DIFFER
30
They also ask students to become more with their homework and the projects they have to complete.
ACTIVE
31
Moreover, students are given tests from a test bank. The test is made up I when they log into the test website. These are the same for students taking distant classes at school or at special courses.
REQUIRE
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Machu Picchu

In a way, it’s wonderful that Machu Picchu can nowadays be visited on a day 32____ from Cuzco. Everyone probably should have a chance to see this remarkable place.
Like many travellers, I hoped to get a taste of Machu Picchu’s ‘lost in the clouds’ atmosphere by approaching the ruins on foot 33____ the Inca trail. I joined the obligatory tour group in Cuzco, then spent the next four days surrounded by others making the classic pilgrimage. Along the way, we crossed several breathtaking Andean passes, treading on original Inca paving stones, and passing several other fine ruins.
Our last 34____ stop was at an exquisitely beautiful site called Huinay Huayna, where dozens of impossibly steep terraces cascade into a deep green gorge backed by a high waterfall. My new-found travelling companions included five Argentines who 35____ my interest in exploring Huinay Huayna by moonlight.
The only problem was a slight difference in styles. Mine was more along the lines of silent and meditative contemplation; theirs involved a ritualistic circle chant, led by the charismatic lone male in the group whom I thereafter nicknamed the Warlock. Absenting myself from the circle that night, I made a mental note to 36____ my distance from them the next day at Machu Picchu.
Before dawn the following morning we climbed to the mountaintop Gateway of the Sun, hoping for the classic panoramic view of Machu Picchu before the tour buses arrived. Unfortunately, the weather did not cooperate. With dozens of other disappointed trekkers, I shivered on the hilltop in chilly fog for two hours, waiting for a sunrise that never came, then trudged down the hill to Machu Picchu itself. As I 37____, the clouds started lifting, revealing the place to be every bit as spectacular as I could have hoped. By day’s end, my tour group had dispersed, apparently preferring a hot bath. I, however, felt I was just 38____ the surface.

32

1) travel
2) voyage
3) journey
4) trip

Ответ: .

33

1) with
2) via
3) across
4) over

Ответ: .

34

1) overall
2) overhead
3) overnight
4) overday

Ответ: .

35

1) captured
2) shared
3) kept
4) held

Ответ: .

36

1) keep
2) hold
3) take
4) use

Ответ: .

37

1) descended
2) ascended
3) attended
4) pretended

Ответ: .

38

1) reaching
2) touching
3) scratching
4) patching

Ответ: .

Ваш результат: пока 0.

Далее вы можете набрать еще 40 баллов. Автоматически это проверить нельзя, поэтому сделайте реалистичный прогноз о том, сколько бы вы смогли набрать баллов, и получите ваш итоговый результат ЕГЭ.

Если возник вопрос по ответу, в котором вы ошиблись, можете задать его в комментариях.

Раздел 4. ПИСЬМО

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Susan who writes:

... Yesterday I borrowed a wonderful book from the library and I can’t put it down. Do you enjoy reading? Who is your favourite writer? What kind of books do you and your friends enjoy?
As for my school news, I’m getting ready for my final exams ...

Write a letter to Susan.
In your letter
— answer her questions
— ask 3 questions about her exams
Write 100 — 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

За это задание вы можете получить 6 баллов максимум.

40

Comment on the following statement.

Lots of teenagers are keen on playing computer games. However, adults are sure that computer games teach us nothing and young people should avoid them.

What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree?

Write 200 — 250 words.

Use the following plan:

— make an introduction (state the problem)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this opposing opinion
— explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

За это задание вы можете получить 14 баллов максимум.

Раздел 5. ГОВОРЕНИЕ

— За 1,5 минуты нужно подготовиться и в следующие 1,5 минуты выразительно прочитать текст вслух — 1 балл.
— Составление 5 вопросов на основе ключевых слов. На подготовку отводится 1,5 минуты, затем каждый вопрос надо сформулировать в течение 20 секунд — 5 баллов.
— 3 фотографии. Нужно выбрать 1 и описать ее по предложенному тут же в задании плану за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.
— 2 картинки. Нужно сравнить их, описать сходства и различия, объяснить, почему выбранная тематика близка выпускнику, за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.