ЕГЭ 2018. Вариант 2

Раздел 1. АУДИРОВАНИЕ

1

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.
  1. Some scientists doubt that global warming may be caused by human activities.
  2. The effects of climate changes have not been thoroughly studied yet.
  3. People are unable to understand the horrible effects of global warming.
  4. Stabilizing the climate will require a lot of effort.
  5. The argument about whether there is global warming is over.
  6. Global warming can have bad influence on people’s health.
  7. We ought to take measures against further warming.

Говорящий

Утверждение

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 

2

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

A Mary’s new job takes up a lot of time and energy.

B Mary has no time to go to parties.

C Peter felt his salary in the company was too low.

D Peter left his job because he had no promotion prospects.

E Peter sent out his resume to nearly twenty companies.

F Peter wouldn’t mind working in another city.

G Mary advises Peter to speak to people with the same problems.

Утверждение

Соответствие диалогу

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

Вы услышите рассказ писателя о своём увлечении музыкой. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3

The narrator says that his musical career
1) changed its direction at the age of 11.
2) started roughly 30 years ago.
3) began after he had sung a song with his father.
Ответ: .

4

When the narrator was almost 40,
1) he was already performing in public.
2) he had learned to sing the parts of ‘Bohemian Rhapsody’.
3) he felt a desire to start playing music.
Ответ: .

5

When the narrator got a mandolin, he
1) didn’t feel surprised.
2) felt a bit nervous.
3) felt relieved.

Ответ: .

6

The narrator enjoyed playing the mandolin because
1) he was able to master difficult chords.
2) he was composing music.
3) he was able to relax after his everyday work.
Ответ: .

7

The narrator went to the jam camp because
1) he wanted to perform in public.
2) he would like to speak to Dr. Banjo.
3) he was offered the easiest way to improve his skills.
Ответ: .

8

In the camp the narrator learned that
1) to play songs he should know forty basic chords.
2) to grow as a musician he should possess certain qualities and abilities.
3) he could become a perfect mandolin player if he practises a lot.
Ответ: .

9

When the narrator came back home last week, he was pleased because
1) Ruth had started taking music lessons.
2) his friends and relatives showed their interest in music.
3) Los Angeles was a different place.
Ответ: .

Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ

10

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Use Silence
2. Gestures and Posture
3. Audience Awareness
4. Sensible Dress
5. Distinct and Audible Speech
6. Consider Context
7. Speaking Through Eyes
8. Strategic Listening

A. The first thing that a good speaker does is looks at the audience and takes a pause before beginning his speech. This helps to create a good impression on the audience. Throughout the speech, the speaker should maintain eye contact with the listeners, otherwise they will feel that they are being ignored and it is quite likely that they also ignore whatever he is trying to convey.

B. Proper variation in emotion and tempo of the voice improves the quality of performance. Accurate pronunciation of words with due stresses wherever required must be done. One more important thing while communicating is that your voice must be clear and loud enough for the audience to hear it. A loud voice can be a strong point for being an effective speaker.

C. Concentrate on your ideas and do not get distracted by the activities performed by the audience, for example, smiling or whispering. To make your communication successful get the clue about the listeners and their interests. Think over the age, sex and background of the people. See whether the audience is patient enough to handle you for hours. Check out if they are friendly or hostile.

D. Facial expressions reveal what thoughts are running through a person’s mind. So while communicating, make sure that your facial expressions reveal your interest for the subject on which you are communicating. The body movements while speaking must coordinate with your convincing power. They must add to the things which are more effectively caught visually than verbally.

E. If you are trying to improve your own communication, concentrate on ways to make your nonverbal signals match the level of formality necessitated by the situation. Some situations require more formal behaviour that might be interpreted very differently in any other setting. So when you are communicating with others, always take into account the situation in which the communication occurs.

F. Don’t be afraid to pause and breathe. Listeners need time to reflect on what you are saying. Just like we need ‘white space’ and punctuation on the written page, we need pauses when we speak. Talking non-stop is a huge drawback. Having the confidence to pause for a few seconds in between sentences commands attention rather than diverts it.

G. The appearance plays an important role in presenting ourselves to society. The people who wear clothes suitable to their body structure look attractive. A person’s physical appearance creates a definite impact on the communication process. Our clothes should not be too modern for the people whom we are interacting with. However, they should be able to create a positive impression on them.

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
Ever wonder A ____________? There’s actually quite a bit of science going on behind the scenes, with several components working together to bring you that digital-quality signal.
Your channel selection begins with the programming sources themselves. Companies like Showtime, HBO or Cinemax create their programming. Channel providers then purchase rights to this programming B ____________. Once a provider has their programming in place, they turn their attention to the broadcast centre to compress and convert the programming for satellite broadcast.
Your Dish Network Programming originally arrives as a digital stream of video, which is then compressed and converted through an encoder, typically using the MPEG2 format. This format reduces the overall size of the video, C ____________.
Once encoded, the video is then encrypted D ____________. After the video has been encrypted, it is sent to the provider’s satellite, strategically positioned in the sky.
The satellite itself uses a dish similar to your own satellite dish, to receive the video and send it back down to Earth. When the satellite sends the signal back down to Earth, it is picked up by your satellite dish, a small round antenna that receives the satellite’s broadcast and sends the video on to your satellite TV receiver.
The satellite TV receiver is that little black box that sits inside your home and allows you to choose E ____________. The receiver actually performs several important functions in the satellite viewing process, including the decryption of the signal itself. If you remember, the satellite signal was scrambled by the provider to protect it from un-paying consumers. Your receiver ‘de-scrambles’ that signal and converts the signal into a format F ____________. Together these amazing components create a vividly clear digital picture for over 200 satellite channels.
  1. which channel you want to watch
  2. including a power source and a computer system
  3. so that the broadcast can only be viewed by paying subscribers
  4. so that they can broadcast the shows via satellite
  5. how your satellite TV system works
  6. making it possible for a satellite to broadcast hundreds of channels at the same time
  7. that your television can handle
A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
Jonte faced playtime with mixed feelings. When the bell rang, the others would rush into the open air, laughing and chattering. He felt left out. Yet these were also times he enjoyed. He could daydream about how things might have been.
Sometimes, though, he would watch the play not directly, that would have been impossible but on the big screen in one of the classrooms. Cheering on his friends made him feel part of the action. Even through the screens, however, watching for long often made his eyes hurt. Sunlight reflected strongly off the silvery turf, and even more from the trees around the ground. Players in motion trailed flashes of light which left black spots in his vision.
It was during a tense game that the summons came through. The shelter Principal, no less, wanted him at once in his office. Jonte uttered a mild swearword, though realising that he had already been watching too long — his head was aching. He made his way to the admin sector, signalled his arrival and went in. The Principal was behind his desk directly opposite the door. He was a small man, with metallic black hair cut short, silver-grey hands in constant fidgety motion and an expression of perpetual irritation. He waved in the direction of a chair placed in front of the desk.
But to Jonte’s surprise, there were several other people in the office. It was difficult at first to see them all clearly: not only had the effects of watching the match still to wear off, but the lighting was poor. Perhaps the Principal had only remembered at the last minute to close the heavy shutters and switch on a lamp.
As his vision returned, Jonte’s surprise grew. The six men and two women, who sat in a half circle to one side, judging by their job tags, were senior... very senior. Four were from the administration. The two women and the other two men seemed to be scientists from different research bodies.
Jonte was used to the fact that other people were inscrutable. He would have been able to tell from gazing in a mirror into his own eyes, with their blue irises surrounding dark pupils, how he was feeling, even if he hadn’t known yet. But other people’s eyes were silver discs, giving away nothing. He could sometimes see from the rest of their faces whether they were happy or sad, smiling or frowning; but their skin reflected the light, so that he could never be quite sure. From the way they were sitting, he thought, the visitors seemed anxious.
‘Jonte’, the Principal said, ‘these people have a favour to ask, and I hope you can help them. Please sit down.’ Jonte’s surprise grew. What possible favour could these people want from someone like him? ‘I’ll help if I can’, he said.
‘You know,’ the Principal went on, ‘that you have had to grow up here because going outside would be dangerous. Your body wouldn’t be able to withstand the radiation, even at night-time. Ordinary people are born with protection; but in your case...’
‘So you see’, one of the women interjected quickly, ‘you are really a very interesting young man. We want you to let us get to know you better.’
‘The people here,’ the Principal resumed, ‘are from the government’s science and research council. They would like to take you to one of their centres in the south, where the facilities are supposed to be better than we can provide. ’
‘But I’m quite happy here,’ Jonte felt he should say. ‘My friends...’
‘... and in any case,’ the Principal insisted a trifle sourly, ‘you wouldn’t be able to stay much longer. The shelter is being closed down.’
Jonte took this in. ‘So when do I have to go?’ he asked.
‘If you can pack your things together quickly,’ one of the men replied, ‘we should like to move you this evening ... say in an hour. Is that all right?’
An hour! The suddenness of it all puzzled Jonte. His condition had been known from the moment he had been born when his parents so he had been told had handed him over for special care. But it also excited him. Apart from a short journey when he had been much younger to a medical centre, he could not remember ever having left the shelter. He didn’t really have much to pack anyway.

(Adapted from ‘Fear No More’ by George Anthony)

12

When his friends rushed into the open air during playtime, Jonte felt
1) embarrased.
2) annoyed.
3) lonely.
4) bored.

Ответ: .

13

When the summons came through, Jonte was
1) glad that he was able to have a rest.
2) annoyed that he had to stop watching the game.
3) eager to know what had happened.
4) in a hurry.
Ответ: .

14

The people in the Principal’s office were all
1) of high rank.
2) very old.
3) researchers.
4) from the administration.

Ответ: .

15

In paragraph 6 the word ‘inscrutable’ means
1) not wishing to talk.
2) unhappy.
3) pretending to be kind.
4) showing no emotion or reaction.

Ответ: .

16

Jonte had to grow up in the shelter because
1) he was an orphan.
2) the world outside the shelter was dangerous.
3) his body was unable to withstand high temperature.
4) he would not manage to survive in the open air.
Ответ: .

17

The people offered to take Jonte to one of their centres because
1) Jonte was not quite happy here.
2) it was well equipped.
3) the Principal didn’t want Jonte to stay in the shelter.
4) the shelter could not provide good education for Jonte.
Ответ: .

18

Jonte was surprised because
1) he had not known about his condition.
2) he had never left the shelter before.
3) he had to leave the shelter urgently.
4) he didn’t have much to pack.

Ответ: .

Раздел 3. ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Обратите внимание, что по правилам ЕГЭ ответы нужно писать без пробелов и других знаков, например, правильный ответ ‘have done’ нужно будет записать как ‘havedone’, иначе ваш ответ не засчитается.

Choosing a Career

19
Jane had always wanted to be a nurse and help in need. Her father, however, thought that nursing was not a suitable profession for her.
PERSON
20
When she left school, she a job as a doctor’s receptionist.
OFFER
21
Jane to take the job, so she decided to talk to her friend Ann about what she should do.
NOT WANT
22
When Jane came to Ann’s house, Ann met her in the garden. ‘Hello, Jane! You look so unhappy! What (you) about?’
THINK
23
While Jane’s her problem, Ann’s mother shouted to the girls to come over.
EXPLAIN
24
She said that Jane’s father an accident and he was in hospital.
HAVE
25
When they arrived at the hospital, Jane was amazed to see her father on the bed in a very good mood. ‘Oh, Jane, the nurses here are really wonderful. And I think ...’ Jane smiled. She knew what her father was going to tell her.
SIT
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Edinburgh

 
Edinburgh is one of the most written-about cities on earth. Built on ancient volcanoes and first established because of its secure and
 
26
position, the capital of Scotland has become a crossroads.
DEFENCE
27
everyone who comes to Scotland today spends some time in this city.
PRACTICAL
28
Edinburgh is the second most popular tourist destination in Great Britain and it’s not hard to see why. Its midsummer festival is one of the biggest in the world.
NATION
29
Edinburgh is a delight to explore on foot: most of its are contained within a compact central area.
ATTRACT
30
With streets steeped in history and a thriving scene, Edinburgh offers the perfect balance between traditional and contemporary things.
CULTURE
31
The area around the city has many towns and scenic villages, which are also great for exploring.
HISTORY
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

The Archipelago

In the remote southern seas there is a cluster of islands. Each island is inhabited by a different race of people. Although physically they look alike, you can tell them 32____ by their styles of dress and their distinctive dialects. Each island has its own unique form of architecture. The only similarity between them is that each race builds in a manner that is 33____ odds with the environment. On rocky hillsides there are wooden huts and in wooded valleys you can see towns of brick. Arid uplands are irrigated and planted with leafy gardens, whereas, on fertile plains, the parks are paved with stone. 34____ their differences, the islanders coexist peacefully. There is rivalry over certain fishing waters but it rarely 35____ to more than a few heated exchanges.
At the centre of the archipelago, perhaps in the most favoured spot of all, lies an island that has been deserted for many generations. It looks very different from the rest: darker, taller, silent. There is no obvious reason 36____ its abandonment as it has good soil and plenty of freshwater.
Long ago, it was inhabited by farmers and fishermen much like everywhere else in the archipelago, but everything changed when they started building the first wall. As soon as it was finished a second circle of battlements began to rise from the centre, slightly narrower than the one before, so that from faraway the island 37____ an enormous wedding cake.
Nobody can explain why the wall was started but there are many theories as to why it was never finished. Some say that so many had perished during its construction, that no one dared halt the work and thereby admit that it had all been in vain. Others claim that the builders simply 38____ out of materials. But one thing is certain, the predicted threat never arrived and the people at the centre of the archipelago had, quite simply, bricked themselves in.

32

1) out
2) off
3) apart
4) aside

Ответ: .

33

1) over
2) at
3) against
4) on

Ответ: .

34

1) Despite
2) In spite
3) Besides
4) Although

Ответ: .

35

1) raises
2) attains
3) amounts
4) achieves

Ответ: .

36

1) with
2) to
3) of
4) for

Ответ: .

37

1) recollected
2) reminded
3) resembled
4) remembered

Ответ: .

38

1) went
2) ran
3) grew
4) came

Ответ: .

Ваш результат: пока 0.

Далее вы можете набрать еще 40 баллов. Автоматически это проверить нельзя, поэтому сделайте реалистичный прогноз о том, сколько бы вы смогли набрать баллов, и получите ваш итоговый результат ЕГЭ.

Если возник вопрос по ответу, в котором вы ошиблись, можете задать его в комментариях.

Раздел 4. ПИСЬМО

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Mark who writes:

...Guess what! All my friends are going to ‘Waterland’ next week and I can’t swim! What shall I do? If I go with my friends, they will be teasing me all the time. I have wanted to learn to swim for a long time but I feel embarrassed to start learning at my age. What would you advise me to do? Is it difficult to learn how to swim? How many lessons will I need?
Well, I’d better go now as my mum’s calling me for dinner.

Write back to Mark.
In your letter
— answer his questions
— ask 3 questions about his favourite sports
Write 100 — 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

За это задание вы можете получить 6 баллов максимум.

40

Comment on the following statement.

Lots of teens believe that it’s important to look nice. However, adults often think that young people pay too much attention to their appearance and fashion.

What is your opinion? Do you care what you wear?

Write 200 — 250 words.

Use the following plan:

— make an introduction (state the problem)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this opposing opinion
— explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

За это задание вы можете получить 14 баллов максимум.

Раздел 5. ГОВОРЕНИЕ

— За 1,5 минуты нужно подготовиться и в следующие 1,5 минуты выразительно прочитать текст вслух — 1 балл.
— Составление 5 вопросов на основе ключевых слов. На подготовку отводится 1,5 минуты, затем каждый вопрос надо сформулировать в течение 20 секунд — 5 баллов.
— 3 фотографии. Нужно выбрать 1 и описать ее по предложенному тут же в задании плану за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.
— 2 картинки. Нужно сравнить их, описать сходства и различия, объяснить, почему выбранная тематика близка выпускнику, за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.