ЕГЭ 2018. Вариант 1

Раздел 1. АУДИРОВАНИЕ

1

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. (курсивом отмечено то, как будет написано в оригинале, здесь же вы сами должны послушать два раза, если послушаете больше, то можете считать ваш результат неправильным. Ответы вводить нужно в формы ввода — места на странице, в которых можно печатать.)
  1. You never know what you will be asked at an interview.
  2. Job interviews put a lot of pressure on applicants.
  3. Let your true personality out at a job interview.
  4. I didn’t take the job because I didn’t like the interview.
  5. Job interviews are a waste of time.
  6. There are sometimes quite funny incidents at interviews.
  7. I didn’t get the position because I was too tense.

Говорящий

Утверждение

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 

2

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

A Ricky’s songs are about the lives of famous people.

B The message in Ricky’s songs is difficult to understand.

C Ricky’s popularity is on the increase.

D Money is unimportant to Ricky.

E Ricky has followed the advice of some of his fans.

F Ricky thinks his fans are disappointed when they meet him.

G Ricky is anxious about his new album.

Утверждение

Соответствие диалогу

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

Вы услышите выступление специалиста по проблемам ядерной энергии. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3

According to the narrator, nuclear power
1) is a solution to climate change.
2) is protected against climate change.
3) can be susceptible to climate change.
Ответ: .

4

Nuclear power plants are usually located
1) in the mountains.
2) near rivers, seas or oceans.
3) in the deserts.

Ответ: .

5

Nuclear power plants face the greatest danger from
1) hurricanes.
2) rising water temperatures.
3) flooding.

Ответ: .

6

During hurricanes,
1) preventive measures are always taken.
2) all doors in a nuclear plant should be left open.
3) safety equipment must be protected from flying debris.
Ответ: .

7

In the future, floods are going to become
1) quite rare.
2) rather infrequent.
3) more common.

Ответ: .

8

During the 2003 heat wave, the French government relaxed the environmental regulations
1) to keep up the supply of energy.
2) to increase the amount of electricity.
3) to reduce their power output.

Ответ: .

9

New nuclear reactors are likely
1) to be less vulnerable to climate change.
2) to be too expensive.
3) to have higher water requirements.

Ответ: .

Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ

10

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Necessary Components
2. Important Conclusion
3. Useful Advice
4. Significant Difference
5. Health Risks
6. Moderation Is the Key!
7. Diet and Exercise
8. Benefits of Good Nutrition

A. Developing healthy eating habits is simpler and easier than you might think. You will look and feel better if you make a habit of eating healthfully. You will have more energy and your immune system will be stronger. When you eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables you are lowering your risk of heart disease, cancers and many other serious health ailments. Healthy eating habits are your ticket to a healthier body and mind.

B. A four-week clinical trial that tested the new regimen found that overweight adults who consumed a high-protein, entirely vegan diet were able to lose about the same amount of weight as a comparison group of dieters on a high-carbohydrate, low-fat vegetarian dairy diet. But while those on the high-carbohydrate dairy diet experienced drops of 12 percent in their cholesterol, those on the high-protein vegan diet saw cholesterol reductions of 20 percent.

C. ‘The idea preyed on me for a long time. If the Atkins Diet looks good, and it’s got so much saturated fat and cholesterol in it, suppose we took that out and put vegetarian protein sources in, which may lower cholesterol,’ Dr. Jenkins said. ‘We know that nuts lower cholesterol and prevent heart disease, and soy is eaten in the Far East, where they don’t get much heart disease. So we put these foods together as protein and fat sources.’

D. The first official warning about the dangers of the Atkins diet was issued by the government amid concern about the rising number of people opting for the high-fat, high-protein diet. Cutting out starchy foods can be bad for your health because you could be missing out on a range of nutrients. Low-carbohydrate diets tend to be high in fat, and this could increase your chances of developing coronary heart disease.

E. Earlier this year, a large study that compared different kinds of diets — including low-fat and low-carbohydrate plans — found that the method didn’t matter as long as people cut calories. That study also found that after two years, most people had regained at least some of the weight they had lost. Dr. Tuttle said that while different weight loss plans offer people different ‘tricks’ and strategies, ultimately, ‘It really comes down to calories in and calories out.’

F. When you think about nutrition, be aware of serving sizes. Many people will eat everything on their plate, regardless of how hungry they actually are. If you know you tend to clean your plate, make an effort to reduce your serving size. If you’re eating out or dining at a friend’s house, don’t be shy about asking for smaller portion sizes. Too much of any one food is a bad thing. There are no bad foods, just bad eating habits.

G. Your body has to stay well hydrated to perform at its best and to properly process all the nutrients in the food you eat. Drink at least 8 glasses of water a day. You may need even more water if you are in a hot environment or if you are exercising. If you are trying to lose weight, add plenty of ice to each glass of water. Your body will burn energy to warm the water up to body temperature.

A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
G
 

11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу. (в поля ввода под текстом)
Stonehenge is probably the most important prehistoric monument in Britain. The Stonehenge that we see today is the final stage A ____________. But first let us look back 5,000 years.
The first Stonehenge was a large earthwork or Henge, comprising a ditch, bank, and the Aubrey holes, all probably built around 3100 BC. The Aubrey holes are round pits in the chalk, about one metre wide and deep, B ____________. Excavations have revealed cremated human bones in some of the chalk filling, but the holes themselves were probably made not for the purpose of graves but as part of the religious ceremony. Shortly after this stage Stonehenge was abandoned, left untouched for over 1000 years.
The second and most dramatic stage of Stonehenge started around 2150 BC. Some 82 bluestones from south-west Wales were transported to the site. It is thought that these stones, some weighing 4 tonnes each, were dragged on rollers and sledges to the headwaters and then loaded onto rafts. This astonishing journey covered nearly 240 miles. Once at the site, these stones were set up in the centre C ____________.
The third stage of Stonehenge, about 2000 BC, saw the arrival of the Sarsen stones. The largest of the Sarsen stones weigh 50 tonnes and transportation by water would have been impossible D ____________. These stones were arranged in an outer circle with a continuous run of lintels. Inside the circle, five trilithons were placed in a horseshoe arrangement, E ____________.
The final stage took place soon after 1500 BC F ____________. The original number of stones in the bluestone circle was probably around sixty. They have long since been removed or broken up. Some remain only as stumps below ground level.
  1. when the bluestones were rearranged in the horseshoe and circle that we see today
  2. to form an incomplete double circle
  3. which form a circle about 284 feet in diameter
  4. which were almost certainly brought from the Marlborough Downs
  5. so the stones could only have been moved using sledges and ropes
  6. whose remains we can still see today
  7. that was completed about 3,500 years ago
A
 
B
 
C
 
D
 
E
 
F
 
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
My room faces the sun in the morning and on clear summer mornings it wakes me bright and fresh, no matter what time I stayed up till. I get up and make breakfast, watch TV, have a shower. If it’s before six in the morning, I usually have a cup of tea and go back to bed where I’ll doze until seven. If I stay at my sister’s, I sleep until the kids wake me or until she comes rolling in, poured from the back of some taxi, whichever is earlier. I’m an early riser, and a dead sleeper.
This morning I wake up with a twitch, like the alarm clock in my head has given me a little electric jolt. It isn’t sunny outside. I pull back the curtains and the sky is dark grey, the same colour as the sea and it looks like the sun won’t appear before tomorrow. Today is Dad’s birthday. Every year on my Dad’s birthday I draw a picture of him and each year he looks a bit different. I’m an artist. There, I said it. It’s not that I draw a straighter line or a truer circle, as they try to teach us to do at school. I just get the message across more clearly than other people. More truthfully. I know it.
I read a lot of books too, mainly about artists, and I go through phases when I like a certain artist or a movement. And I try to paint like them. When my dad comes back, I’ll be able to say ‘this is you when I was twelve and I was in love with Monet’ or ‘this is you on your thirty-eighth birthday, when I was fourteen and I wanted to paint like Dante Gabriel Rossetti.’ And he’ll look at each painting and know that I loved him and never forgot him.
At the moment I’m into lines, simple lines. It’s a development of a six month obsession I had with calligraphy, which came out of a phase I had with cartoons, which came from Liechtenstein and Warhol, and so on all the way back. So I get out my charcoals, and a couple of sticks of chalk and I pin a heavy sheet of grey A3 paper onto a board and rest it on my knee as I sit on the bed.
On Saturday mornings when my Mum worked, he’d take me to town and I’d drag him around the art shops. On my eighth birthday he bought me an easel, a real one, not a kiddie’s. On my ninth birthday he bought me oils. On my sixth birthday he bought me a box of 99 crayons. ‘Draw me,’ he’d say. ‘Oh, Dad, I can’t.’ Some mornings I’d wake up and there’d be a book on my pillow about Picasso, or Chagall.
I should go to school, I really should. I’m not one of those kids who are scared to go. I don’t get bullied and I’m not thick. I just can’t find a good reason to waste my day in a classroom studying physics or citizenship or Buddhism. I could learn them in the library. Phil, the head of year eleven, will bollock me for it tomorrow, if I go in. I’ll tell Phil the truth, it was my Dad’s birthday and I spent it with him.
So I spend some time thinking about his hair, which I think is probably no more grey than it was last year. I know hair doesn’t age at the same speed every year, but I make his hair longer this year. And in my mind’s eye I give him an extra few pounds too. But I keep the smile fixed in my head, maybe a little muted, like it is when he’s happy but distracted, or trying to understand me when I’m babbling to him.
It’s head and shoulders, so I’ll put him in a T-shirt that shows his neck and throat and how strong he is and how his eyes sparkle and how his eyebrows are dead level straight and still black. I try to think of how much I want to show and how much I want to tell. Then I pick up a charcoal stick and do it. I pick up a chalk to add a suggestion of colour to his eyes, then another chalk for his mouth. And there he is. Dad.

(Adapted from ‘It’s Just the Sun Rising’ by James Ross)

12

That morning the narrator was woken up by
1) the kids.
2) his sister.
3) nobody.
4) an alarm clock.

Ответ: .

13

The narrator considers himself to be an artist because
1) he can draw a straighter line and a truer circle.
2) he gets lots of messages from other people.
3) he can speak to people more truthfully.
4) he is able to convey his ideas better than other people.
Ответ: .

14

The narrator’s manner of painting
1) is similar to Monet’s.
2) is like Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s.
3) comes from Liechtenstein and Warhol.
4) is constantly changing.
Ответ: .

15

The narrator was encouraged to paint by
1) his mother.
2) his father.
3) his brother.
4) his friend Phil.

Ответ: .

16

The narrator doesn’t want to go to school because
1) he prefers to study on his own.
2) he doesn’t like some subjects.
3) he is bullied at school.
4) he is scared to go there.

Ответ: .

17

In paragraph 6 ‘I’m not thick’ means that the narrator is
1) healthy.
2) clever.
3) strong.
4) hard-working.

Ответ: .

18

Compared to the previous year, the narrator’s father
1) has much greyer hair.
2) has a happier smile.
3) is a bit fatter.
4) is much stronger.

Ответ: .

Раздел 3. ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Обратите внимание, что по правилам ЕГЭ ответы нужно писать без пробелов и других знаков, например, правильный ответ ‘have done’ нужно будет записать как ‘havedone’, иначе ваш ответ не засчитается.

What Can Computers Do?

19
Computers and microchips part of our everyday lives.
BECOME
20
We read magazines which on computers, we buy things with the help of computers, we pay bills prepared by computers.
PRODUCE
21
Just а phone call involves the use of а sophisticated computer system.
MAKE
22
In the past, life without computers was much than it is today.
DIFFICULT
23
The first computers were able to multiply long numbers, but they do anything else.
NOT CAN
24
Nobody stories about robots and space travel, but now computers are able to do almost all difficult jobs.
BELIEVE
25
What makes your computer such а miraculous device? It is а personal communicator that you to interact with other computers and with people around the world. And you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.
ENABLE
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

A Challenge for Europe

26
Recently there has been a small in the number of people out of work in Europe.
REDUCE
27
However, is still the number one social problem facing the 15 member states of the European Union.
EMPLOY
28
Moreover, of opportunity between men and women is still an issue that politicians in many countries have not come to grips with.
EQUAL
29
In professions such as law and engineering women are still by their absence.
NOTICE
30
still discriminate against women in a number of ways even if their qualifications are the same as those of men.
EMPLOY
31
It would be a pity if the of the EU on an economic level were marred by failure in the vital area of social policy.
ACHIEVE
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Charity

A lot of people in our world have little or no money at all. Many of them are homeless and can’t enjoy what most of us take for 32____. They need our help and there are a lot of charity organizations to help poor people. Because of charities many homeless people have shelters, hungry children have been fed, a lot of diseases have already been 33____ and many animals are safe.
Around the world there are a lot of children who suffer from different diseases, running 34____ time and hope. The biggest charity project in Russia is ‘Contribution to the Future’ whose goal is to help any child in need. Its programmes help poor, homeless and disabled children.
There are a lot of people in the world who have chosen charity as their main mission in life. One of the most famous missionaries was Mother Teresa. She lived the hard life of the poor alongside them; she knew how it felt sleeping on hard floors and living on dirty streets. And because she was experiencing 35____ what the people she was helping were going through, she so effectively knew how to give. Besides meeting people’s basic physical needs by giving them food and medicine, she met people’s emotional needs as well.
A lot of rich people also feel the necessity to help the poor. For example, Bill Gates is a famous billionaire, but he is also a noted philanthropist who donated the proceeds of his successful books to 36____ educational organizations. He has also given millions to initiatives in global health and learning, hoping to 37____ more and more people to have access to 38____ facilities in these areas. A good example is the opening of ‘The School of the Future’ in Philadelphia, sponsored by his company ‘Microsoft’.
The spirit of philanthropy is not about what or how much you give but rather about the feeling that you are helping others in need.

32

1) common
2) granted
3) usual
4) life

Ответ: .

33

1) recovered
2) healed
3) cared
4) cured

Ответ: .

34

1) with
2) out
3) of
4) out of

Ответ: .

35

1) first-hand
2) first-rate
3) first-time
4) first-ever

Ответ: .

36

1) unprofit
2) unprofitable
3) non-profit
4) non-profitable

Ответ: .

37

1) unable
2) enable
3) let
4) make

Ответ: .

38

1) visible
2) vigorous
3) vivid
4) vital

Ответ: .

Ваш результат: пока 0.

Далее вы можете набрать еще 40 баллов. Автоматически это проверить нельзя, поэтому сделайте реалистичный прогноз о том, сколько бы вы смогли набрать баллов, и получите ваш итоговый результат ЕГЭ.

Если возник вопрос по ответу, в котором вы ошиблись, можете задать его в комментариях.

Раздел 4. ПИСЬМО

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Rob who writes:

...and then there’s a rugby match on Saturday. If our team wins, we’ll be the champions of our school. Who knows?
And another thing. I have to do a project on technology for school. Could you tell me a few things about how you use technology in your life? You know, computers, mobiles, TV, that sort of things. And what about your relatives? How do they use technology in their everyday lives?
Anyway, I met Mark the other day and he said that...

Write back to Rob.
In your letter
— answer his questions
— ask 3 questions about rugby
Write 100 — 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

За это задание вы можете получить 6 баллов максимум.

40

Comment on the following statement.

The future of education — books or computers?

What is your opinion? Are computers going to replace printed books in the future?

Write 200 — 250 words.

Use the following plan:

— make an introduction (state the problem)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this opposing opinion
— explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

За это задание вы можете получить 14 баллов максимум.

Раздел 5. ГОВОРЕНИЕ

— За 1,5 минуты нужно подготовиться и в следующие 1,5 минуты выразительно прочитать текст вслух — 1 балл.
— Составление 5 вопросов на основе ключевых слов. На подготовку отводится 1,5 минуты, затем каждый вопрос надо сформулировать в течение 20 секунд — 5 баллов.
— 3 фотографии. Нужно выбрать 1 и описать ее по предложенному тут же в задании плану за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.
— 2 картинки. Нужно сравнить их, описать сходства и различия, объяснить, почему выбранная тематика близка выпускнику, за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.