Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
UK Political System

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. It means that the United Kingdom is governed by a hereditary sovereign, an elected House of Commons and a partly hereditary House of Lords.

The sovereign has the title of King (or Queen). The Sovereign has very few functions that really matter, such as the function of the arbiter of last resort in some matters. These matters can be dissolution of Parliament and invitations to form a government when there is no clear majority. The Queen is Elizabeth II.

The supreme legislative power is vested in the Parliament, which sits for 5 years unless sooner dissolved. The Parliament has two chambers: the House of Lords with about 830 hereditary peers, 26 spiritual peers, about 270 life peers and peeresses, and the House of Commons. The House of Commons has 650 popularly elected members. The House of Commons is the real governing body of the United Kingdom. In order to become a law, a new bill proposed by the Cabinet must be approved by both houses of the Parliament. The Lords cannot veto a bill, but they can delay it for a maximum of one year. Financial bills cannot be delayed by the House of Lords.

The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the Cabinet, headed by Prime Minister. Prime Minister, normally the head of the party commanding a majority in the House of Commons, is appointed by the Sovereign. Prime Minister appoints the rest of the Cabinet. All ministers must be members of one or the other houses of the Parliament. They are individually and collectively responsible to the Crown and the Parliament. The Cabinet proposes bills and arranges business of the Parliament.

Government in Britain since 1945 has alternated between only two political parties, the Conservatives (the Tory) and the Labour Party. No other party has been in office at all since 1945 and there have beea no coalitions. The third long-established party, the Liberals, enjoyed moments of success, but no member of the Liberal Party has held government office since 1945.

Topical Vocabulary

- a constitutional monarchy
конституционная монархия
to govern
управлять
a hereditary sovereign
наследственный монарх
elected House of Commons
выборная палата общин
partly hereditary House of Lords
частично наследственная палата лордов
the title of King (or Queen)
титул короля (королевы)
the arbiter of last resort
арбитр последней инстанции
dissolution of Parliament
роспуск парламента
to form a government
сформировать правительство
clear majority
четкое большинство
- the supreme legislative power
высшая законодательная власть
to be vested in
принадлежать (чему-либо, кому-либо) (о власти, праве)
to dissolve smth.
распустить (парламент)
a chamber
палата
a hereditary peer
наследственный пэр
a spiritual peer
епископ - член парламента
a life peer or peeress
пожизненный пэр или пэресса
a popularly elected member
член парламента, избранный всенародным голосованием
the real governing body
орган, обладающий реальной властью
to propose a bill
внести законопроект
to be approved by smb., smth.
быть одобренным кем-либо, чем-либо
to veto a bill
наложить вето на законопроект
to delay a bill for
отложить рассмотрение законопроекта на (определенный срок)
- the executive power of the Crown
исполнительная власть монарха
to be exercised by
осуществляться (чем-либо)
to be headed by smb.
возглавляться кем-либо
Prime Minister
премьер-министр
to command a majority
обладать большинством
to appoint smb.
назначить кого-либо
to be individually and collectively responsible to smb., smth.
нести индивидуальную и коллективную ответственность перед кем-либо, чем-либо
- the Conservatives (the Tory)
консерваторы (тори)
the Labour Party
лейбористская партия
to be in office
быть у власти
a long-established party
давно существующая партия
the Liberals
либералы
to hold government office
быть у власти (о правительстве)

Answer the questions:

  1. What does the term «constitutional monarchy» mean?
  2. What are the functions of the sovereign?
  3. Who are the members of the House of Lords?
  4. What are the functions of the houses?
  5. What are the functions of Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers?
  6. What are the major political parties in Great Britain?

Translate into English:

  1. Соединенное Королевство управляется (is governed by) монархом; выборной палатой общин, а также частично наследственной палатой лордов.
  2. Монарх имеет титул короля (королевы) и является арбитром последней инстанции в некоторых вопросах, таких как роспуск правительств или его формирование.
  3. Высшая законодательная власть осуществляется парламентом, состоящим из палаты лордов и палаты общин.
  4. Палата лордов состоит из наследственных пэров, пожизненных пэров и пэресс, епископов - членов парламента.
  5. Палата общин, состоящая из всенародно избираемых членов, - реальный правящий орган Соединенного Королевства.
  6. Кабинет министров вносит законопроект; парламент может одобрить его или отложить его рассмотрение.
  7. Исполнительная власть осуществляется кабинетом министров, который вносит на рассмотрение законопроекты и организует деятельность правительства.

Посмотреть ответы

1. The United Kingdom is governed by a sovereign, an elected House of Commons and a partly hereditary House of Lords.
2. The sovereign has the title of King (or Queen) and is the arbiter of last resort in some matters like dissolution of Parliament or forming a government.
3. The supreme legislative power is vested in the Parliament, which has the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
4. The House of Lords consists of hereditary peers, life peers and peeresses and spiritual peers.
5. The House of Commons, which consists of popularly elected members, is the real governing body of the UK.
6. The Cabinet of Ministers proposes a bill, the Parliament can approve it or delay it.
7. The executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers, which proposes bills and arranges business of the government.

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