Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Great Britain lies on the Atlantic coast of Western Europe, separated from France by only 34 km (21 miles) of water. It is made up of three countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Great Britain with Northern Ireland forms the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital of the United Kingdom is London, in England. The capital of Wales is Cardiff, and the Scottish capital is at Edinburgh.

Great Britain’s largest island neighbour is Ireland. This is mainly occupied by the independent Republic of Ireland. The remainder is Northern Ireland which is a part of the United Kingdom. Many small islands are also linked with the United Kingdom.

Although a small island, Great Britain has a remarkable variety of landscapes. To the north and west are highlands - the mountains of Scotland, Cumbria and Wales, and the Pennine Chain. To the east are flat plains, and in the south are lowlands broken by low ranges of hills. To the Southwest are the bleak moors of Devon and Cornwall.

The continent of Europe extends out below the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in the form of a continental shelf. Great Britain is perched on this shelf, surrounded by the shallow waters of the North Sea, the Irish Sea and the English Channel.

A warm ocean current, the Gulf Stream, washes Britain’s western shores. This water heats up and cools down very slowly. Britain therefore enjoys warmer winters and cooler summers than other countries at the same latitude. The west of the island has a higher rainfall and slightly milder climate than the east.

Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered Britain, but were unable to subdue the independent tribes in the west and the north. Other invaders were Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. England waged numerous colonial wars and was the empire for many centuries. England was the first country where capitalism was established.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The powers of the British Queen are limited by the Parliament. The British Parliament consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Topical Vocabulary

- to lie on
находиться на
to be made up of smth.
состоять из чего-либо
to form smth.
формировать, образовывать что-либо
- an island neighbour
островной сосед
to be occupied by
быть занятым (чем-либо)
the remainder
to be linked with
быть связанным с (чем-либо)
- to have a variety of landscapes
иметь разнообразный ландшафт
горы, гористая местность
a flat plain
плоская равнина
a low range of hills
низкая гряда гор
bleak moors
унылые торфяники, болотистые места
- to extend out
тянуться, простираться
a continental shelf
континентальный шельф
shallow waters of the North Sea
мелководное Северное море
- an ocean current
океаническое течение
to wash the shores
омывать берега
to heat up
to cool down
at the same latitude
на той же широте
to have a higher rainfall
иметь большее количество осадков
- to be many centuries in the making
формироваться в течение ряда столетий
to conquer
to subdue the independent tribes
подчинить независимые племена
an invader
to wage a colonial war
вести колониальную войну
an empire
to establish capitalism
установить капитализм
- a highly developed industrial country
страна с высокоразвитой промышленностью
a producer and exporter of smth.
производитель и экспортер чего-либо
aircraft and navigation equipment
оборудование для самолетов и навигационное оборудование
the chief industry
главная отрасль промышленности
- a constitutional monarchy
конституционная монархия
the powers of
власть (кого-либо)
to be limited by smth.
быть ограниченным чем-либо
the sovereign

Answer the questions:

  1. Where does the UK lie?
  2. What does the UK consist of?
  3. What is Great Britain’s largest island neighbour?
  4. What proves that Great Britain has a variety of landscapes?
  5. How does the Gulf Stream influence Britain’s climate?
  6. What is Britain’s history?
  7. What are Britain’s chief industries?
  8. What is Britain’s political system?

Translate into English:

  1. Великобритания состоит из трех частей, Соединенное Королевство - из четырех.
  2. Ближайший островной сосед Великобритании - Северная Ирландия.
  3. В Соединенное Королевство входит также оставшаяся часть острова Ирландия и малые острова.
  4. Поверхность Великобритании состоит из гористой местности и низин, пересекаемых невысокими горными цепями.
  5. Соединенное Королевство лежит на континентальном шельфе и омывается Северным морем, проливом Ла-Манш, а также теплым океаническим течением Гольфстрим.
  6. История Великобритании насчитывает много веков.
  7. Территория Британии завоевывалась англами, саксами, ютами, викингами и норманнами.
  8. Англия, которая многие века вела колониальные войны, была также первой страной капитализма.
  9. Соединенное Королевство - высокоразвитая промышленная страна, которая производит и экспортирует различную продукцию.
  10. Власть монарха ограничена парламентом.

Посмотреть ответы

1. Great Britain consists of three parts, the United Kingdom consists of four parts.
2. Britain’s nearest neighbour island is Northern Ireland.
3. The United Kingdom also includes the remainder of the island of Ireland and small islands.
4. The surface of Great Britain consists of highlands and lowlands broken by low ranges of hills.
5. The United Kingdom lies on a continental shelf and is washed by the North Sea, the English Channel, as well as by the warm ocean current, the Gulf Stream.
6. Great Britain has been many centuries in the making.
7. The territory of Britain was conquered by Angles, Saxes, Jutes, Vikings and Normans.
8. England which was waging colonial wars for many centuries, was also the first country where capitalism was established.
9. The United Kingdom is a highly developed industrial country, a producer and exporter of different goods.
10. The powers of the sovereign are limited by the Parliament

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