Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Peter the Great

Peter I, or Peter the Great, was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. First he ruled together with his brother, Ivan, and his sister, Sofya. In 1696 he became a sole ruler.

He was a healthy, lively and clever child. He loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. At the age of l7 he was married.

Peter I is famous for drawing Russia further to the East. He also transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Peter travelled much in Western Europe and tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology. He completely changed the Russian government and military system: he increased the power of the monarch and reduced the power of the boyars and the church.

In foreign policy, Peter I waged a war with Turkey (1695-1696) and the Great Nothern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). In these wars, he wanted to get access to the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. He managed to get the shores of the Baltic Sea and the Caspian Sea.

Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his reign.

Topical Vocabulary

- one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers
один из наиболее выдающихся правителей и реформаторов
Tsar of Russia
российский царь
to become Emperor
стать императором
to rule
править
to become a sole ruler
стать единоличным правителем
- military games
военные игры
to enjoy carpentry, blacksmithing and printing
с удовольствием заниматься плотницким, кузнецким и печатным делом
- to be famous for smth.
быть известным чем-либо
to draw Russia further to the East
расширить границы России дальше на Восток
to transfer the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg
перенести столицу из Москвы в Петербург
to carry western customs and habits to Russia
принести в Россию западные обычаи и нравы
to introduce western technology
принести в Россию западные обычаи и нравы
to change the Russian government and military system
изменить российскую систему управления и армию
to increase the power of the monarch
усилить власть монарха
to reduce the power of the boyars and the church
ослабить власть бояр и церкви
- to wage a war with
вести войну против какой-либо страны
to get access to
получить доступ к (чему-либо)
to get the shores of
отвоевать побережье (какой-либо страны, континента)
to be much more secure and progressive
быть значительно более защищенным и прогрессивным
one’s reign
чье-либо правление

Answer the questions:

  1. What was Peter the Great noted for?
  2. What kind of child was he?
  3. What wars did Peter I wage?
  4. What part did Peter I play in Russian history?

Translate into English:

  1. Петр I - царь, а позднее - император России, выдающийся российский реформатор.
  2. Петр I правил сначала вместе со своим братом и сестрой, а потом стал единоличным правителем.
  3. Петр I известен тем, что расширил территорию России на восток, запад и юг.
  4. Петр I известен также тем, что принес в Россию западные обычаи, ввел западную технику и перенес столицу в Санкт-Петербург.
  5. Петр I, изменив систему управления Россией, усилил власть монарха и ограничил (limit) власть церкви и бояр.
  6. Петр I известен своей внешней политикой, в том числе войнами с Турцией, Швецией и Персией.
  7. Россия получила выход к Балтийскому и Каспийскому морям.
  8. После правления Петра I Россия стала более прогрессивной нацией, чем была до него.
  9. Выход к Балтийскому и Каспийскому морям обеспечил (guaranteed) безопасность России.

Посмотреть ответы

1. Peter I was a Russian tsar and later Emperor of Russia, and an outstanding Russian reformer.
2. First Peter I ruled together with his sister and brother, later he became a sole ruler.
3. Peter I is famous for drawing Russia further to the East, West and South.
4. He is also known for bringing Western customs to Russia, introducing Western technology and transferring the capital to St. Petersburg.
5. Peter I, having changed the Russian government, increased the power of the monarch and limited the power of the church and the boyars.
6. Peter I is famous for his foreign policies, including wars with Turkey, Sweden and Persia.
7. Russia got access to the Baltic and the Caspian Seas.
8. After Peter’s reign Russia became a more advanced nation than before it.
9. The access to the Baltic and the Caspian seas guaranteed the security of Russia.

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