Тема / Топик по английскому языку:
Cities of the United Kingdom

The population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is more than 57 million people. It is mostly urban: nine tenth of it lives in towns and cities.

London, the largest city in Europe, dominates Britain. It is home for the headquarters of all government departments, Parliament, the major legal institutions and the monarch. It is the country’s business and banking centre and the centre of its transport network. It contains headquarters of the national television networks and of all the national newspapers. It is about 7 times larger than any other city in the country. About a fifth of the total population of the United Kingdom lives in the Greater London area.

The country’s second largest city is Birmingham. During the industrial revolution, the city and the surrounding area of the west midlands, known as the Black country, developed into the country’s major engineering centre. Factories of Birmingham still convert iron and steel into a vast variety of goods.

In northern England, there are large deposits of coal and iron ore. They enabled this area to lead the industrial revolution in the 18th century. On the western side, the Manchester area became, in the 19th century, the world’s leading producer of cotton goods. On the eastern side, towns such as Bradford and Leeds became the world’s leading producers of woollen goods. Further south, Sheffield became a centre for the production of steel goods. Further north, around Newcastle, shipbuilding is the major industry.

Glasgow in Scotland is the third largest city in Britain. It is associated with heavy industry and some of the worst housing conditions in Britain. However, this image is one-sided. Glasgow has a strong artistic heritage. At the turn of the last century, the work of the Glasgow school put the city at the forefront of English design and architecture.

Edinburgh, which is half the size of Glasgow, is the city of science and is associated with science, law and administration. This reputation, together with many historic buildings has led to its being called «The Athens of the North». The annual festival of the arts is internationally famous.

Topical Vocabulary

- urban
городской
- to dominate Britain
быть главным, основным в Великобритании
to be home for the headquarters of all government departments
быть местом нахождения центральных учреждений всех департаментов правительства
the major legal institutions
основные судебные учреждения
the monarch
монарх
the country’s business and banking centre
центр бизнеса и банковского дела страны
a transport network
транспортная сеть
to contain headquarters of the national television networks
быть местом нахождения центрального офиса национальной телефонной сети
the total population
общее население
the Greater London area
район Большого Лондона
- the industrial revolution
промышленная революция
midlands
центральная часть Великобритании
to develop into smth.
превратиться во что-либо
the country’s major engineering centre
главный центр машиностроения страны
to convert iron and steel into a vast variety of goods
производить большое количество товаров из железа и стали
- deposits of coal and iron ore
месторождения угля и железной руды
to enable the area to lead the industrial revolution
дать возможность району лидировать в промышленной революции
the world’s leading producer of cotton goods
ведущий в мире производитель изделий из хлопка
the world’s leading producer of woollen goods
ведущий в мире производитель шерстяных изделий
a centre for the production of steel goods
центр производства изделий из стали
shipbuilding
судостроение
the major industry
основная отрасль промышленности
- to be associated with heavy industry
ассоциироваться с тяжелой промышленностью
housing conditions
жилищные условия
an image
представление
to be one-sided
быть односторонним
to have a strong artistic heritage
обладать богатым художественным наследием
at the turn of the last century
на рубеже прошлого века
to put the city at the forefront of smth.
вывести город на первый план в области чего-либо
design and architecture
дизайн и архитектура
- to be half the size of
быть в два раза меньше, чем (что-либо)
to be associated with science, law and administration
ассоциироваться с наукой, законом и управлением
a reputation
репутация
«The Athens of the North»
Северные Афины
the annual festival of the arts
ежегодный фестиваль искусств
to be internationally famous
быть всемирно знаменитым

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the population of the United Kingdom?
  2. What part does London play in the life of the United Kingdom?
  3. What is Birmingham noted for?
  4. What natural resources are there in northern England?
  5. How can you characterize Glasgow’s image?
  6. What is Edinburgh associated with?

Translate into English:

  1. Население Великобритании в основном городское и составляет 57 миллионов человек.
  2. В Лондоне размещаются центральные учреждения правительства, телевизионных сетей, газет, центральные юридические учреждения.
  3. Во время промышленной революции Бирмингем превратился в крупнейший центр машиностроения и сейчас производит изделия из стали и железа.
  4. Во время промышленной революции месторождения угля и железной руды сделали северные районы Англии ведущими.
  5. Манчестер - ведущий производитель изделий из хлопка, Лидс - изделий из шерсти, Шеффилд - изделий из стали.
  6. Глазго ассоциируется с тяжелой промышленностью, плохими жилищными условиями и великолепной архитектурой и дизайном.
  7. Эдинбург ассоциируется с наукой и управлением; там также проводится международный фестиваль искусств.

Посмотреть ответы

1. The population of Great Britain is mostly urban and is 57 million people.
2. London is home for the headquarters of all government departments, headquarters of the national television networks, newspapers, the major legal institutions.
3. During the industrial revolution, Birmingham developed into the country’s major engineering centre and now produces goods from steel and iron.
4. Deposits of coal and iron ore enabled northern England to lead the industrial revolution.
5. Manchester is the leading producer of cotton goods, Leeds - of woolen goods, Sheffield - of steel goods.
6. Glasgow is associated with heavy industry, bad housing conditions, as well as with magnificent architecture and design.
7. Edinburgh is associated with science and administration; the international festival of arts is held there, too.

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